Invisible Harms

  • Stevie-Jade HardyEmail author
  • Neil Chakraborti
Part of the Palgrave Hate Studies book series (PAHS)


This chapter presents an unflinchingly vivid account of the ways in which victims’ lives are blighted by bruises, broken bones and scars, by the emergence or exacerbation of debilitating health conditions, and by anxiety, fear and depression. It also illustrates that experiences of hate crime can often be commonplace that the impact has, to some extent, been ‘neutralised’ or normalised as part of an unwanted but inevitable feature of being ‘different’. This chapter will also show that the damage caused by hate crime extends well beyond the primary victim, often evoking fear, alarm and distress among family members, and in some contexts, within wider communities.


Hate crime Victims Physical harms Emotional harms Coping strategies 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of CriminologyUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK

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