Application of Nanotechnology in the Bioremediation of Heavy Metals and Wastewater Management

  • Shanthala Mallikarjunaiah
  • Mahesh Pattabhiramaiah
  • Basavaraja Metikurki
Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)


Discharge of heavy metals from industrial, municipal, agricultural, and domestic wastewater has become a serious threat for the ecosystem. Various pollutants are released to wastewater, including heavy metal ions, organics, bacteria, viruses, and so on, which are very detrimental to human health. Discharge of heavy metals from these sources is one of the major environmental problems, posing serious threat to living organisms. Among different water pollutants, heavy metal ions, such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ Cr(VI), and Hg2+, have high toxic and nonbiodegradable properties and can cause severe health problems in animals and human beings. With the development of nanotechnology, nanoparticles are used as the adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Several researches have proved that nanoparticles are the effective sorbents widely used for the removal of heavy metal ions at low concentrations from wastewater due to their unique structure properties like high selectivity and adsorption capacity. Herein, the possible adsorption mechanism of heavy metal ions and the modification of adsorbents in efficient removal of heavy metal ions are discussed. This chapter intends to bring together all the recent research works on nanoparticle synthesis and its advantages as adsorbents in the treatment of heavy metal-polluted wastewater that have so far been undertaken.


Adsorption Heavy metal ions Nanoparticles Nanotechnology Wastewater 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shanthala Mallikarjunaiah
    • 1
  • Mahesh Pattabhiramaiah
    • 1
  • Basavaraja Metikurki
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Applied Genetics, Department of ZoologyBangalore University, Jnana BharathiBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryVivekananda College of PharmacyBengaluruIndia

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