Advertisement

Slum Upgradation, Redevelopment and Relocation through Slum Vulnerability Assessment in Delhi

  • Anika KapoorEmail author
  • Baleshwar Thakur
Chapter
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

In India, one-third of urban inhabitants live in impoverished slums and squatter settlements. Because of urbanization, people from rural areas have been migrating to urban centres primarily to improve their economic and social opportunities. Nevertheless, the opportunity has been accompanied with degraded quality of life, fear of eviction and deplorable health, making slums and slum dwellers vulnerable. The purpose of the paper is to summarize varied perceptions on the slum vulnerability. It also attempts to identify attributes of Slum Vulnerability Assessment (SVA), thereby, establishing SVA as a tool for slum upgradation and improvement. The study is based on primary data and analysis of 23 slum pockets of Delhi. The study also includes review of secondary data consisting of the existing research studies, slum-related policies and guidelines of related authorities. The authors have attempted to establish SVA as an assessment tool for effective slum improvement policies in urban areas. The findings are suggestive that slums are dynamic and transforming with urbanization. The study reveals that there is an absence of suitable assessment criteria for making policies related to slum in situ upgradation, redevelopment and relocation. Slum vulnerability has been neglected as an attribute for making decisions related to slum upgradation. It is, therefore, imperative to assess vulnerability of slums and to identify criteria for slum improvement and upgradation to make effective slum policies. The study engenders a tool for slum vulnerability assessment for its upgradation and improvement. It establishes the need for a technique for effective slum policies in the era of ever-increasing urbanization. In the process of reviewing existing slum situation and slum-related policies, the authors have identified the gaps and suggested SVA, as an effective tool for slum upgradation and improvement.

Keywords

Slum Slum redevelopment Slum relocation Vulnerability assessment 

References

  1. Agarwal S, Taneja S, Patra P (2014) Vulnerability assessment of slums: assessing multi-dimensions of urban poverty for better program targeting. Urban Health Resource Center (UHRC)Google Scholar
  2. Alcayna-Stevens T (2015) Slum socio-ecology: an exploratory characterisation of vulnerability to climate-change related disasters in the urban contextGoogle Scholar
  3. Andavarapu D, Edelman DJ (2013) Evolution of slum redevelopment policy. Curr Urban Stud 1(4):185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhattacharya S (2012) We made them criminals—the failure of a Delhi slum relocation, News Article, The National, World, March 8Google Scholar
  5. Bryman A (2004) Social research methods, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Census (2011) Primary census abstracts, Registrar General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Chandramouli C, R General (2011) Census of India 2011. Provisional population totals. Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. Chattopadhyay S, Biswas A (2010) Slum improvement through legal framework in India. Int J Hous Sci Appl 34(2)Google Scholar
  9. City Development Plan of Delhi (2006) JNNURM Report, Department of Urban Development Government of Delhi and IL and FS Ecosmart Limited, New Delhi, OctoberGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins A (2015) Categories of residential colonies and properties in Delhi. Government of NCT, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. CAG Auditor General of India (2013) Report of the comptroller and auditor general of India (No. 2). ReportGoogle Scholar
  12. Dupont V (2008) Slum demolitions in Delhi since the 1990s: an appraisal. Econ Polit Wkly 79–87Google Scholar
  13. DUSIB (2015a) List of J.J. clusters in Delhi, Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board, Government of National Capital Region, Delhi, 2014Google Scholar
  14. DUSIB (2015b) List of additional J.J. Clusters in Delhi, Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board, Government of NCT, Delhi, 2014Google Scholar
  15. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (2009) United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat (UNISDR). ISBN/ISSN: 9789211320282Google Scholar
  16. Guedira A, Malti ME (2005) Evaluating and reducing the vulnerability of slums, traditional housing and migrant populations—Experience from Morocco, World conference on disaster reduction, Kingdom of Morocco Ministry of housing and Urban PlanningGoogle Scholar
  17. Guidelines for Preparation of Slum Free City Plan of Action, 2013 – 2022 (2013) Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY), Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  18. Kattakayam J (2017) Out of 4 lakh low-cost dwelling units only 85 allotted: CAG, The Hindu Press, 3 April 2013, web: 18 February 2017Google Scholar
  19. Madadevia D, Joshi R, Gogia T (2010) Handbook on land tenure for slum free cities, Centre for urban equity, a NRC of ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, March 2010Google Scholar
  20. Masta DK, Naik G, Mukherjee K (2013) The challenge of relocating urban slums: the impact of program governance on its acceptanceGoogle Scholar
  21. Patel B, Joshi R, Ballaney S, Nohn M (2011) Slum planning schemes: a statutory framework for establishing secure tenure and improving living conditions in Indian slums. Environ Urban ASIA 2(1):45–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Patel K (2013a) A successful slum upgrade in Durban: a case of formal change and informal continuity. Habitat Int 40:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Patel S (2013b) Upgrade, rehouse or resettle: an assessment of the Indian government’s basic services for the urban poor (BSUP) programme. Environ Urban 25(1):177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Plotnick E (2001) A graphical system for understanding the relationship between concepts. Teacher Librarian 28Google Scholar
  25. Risbud N (2010) Typology of slums and land tenure in Indian cities. In: Presentation at the national workshop on land tenure issues in slum free planning, Ahmedabad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  26. Sheikh S, Banda S (2014) The Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board (DUSIB): the challenges facing a strong, progressive agency. A report of the Cities of Delhi project, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi (May 2014)Google Scholar
  27. Singh P (2011) Sheltering Delhi’s slums. Working Paper 230, Centre for Civil Society, New Delhi. http://www.ccsindia.org/ccsindia/downloads/intern-papers-09/sheltering-delhis-slums-230.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug
  28. The Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board Act, 2010 (Delhi Act 07 Of 2010) (2010) Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, Department of Urban Development, Delhi Secretariat, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  29. Tripathi A (2007) The ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains act, 1958: with rules, amendments, notifications and orders. Sundeep PrakashanGoogle Scholar
  30. United Nations Human Settlements Program (UN-Habitat) (2003) The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements. Earthscan Publications Ltd, SterlingGoogle Scholar
  31. United Nations Human Settlements Program (UN-Habitat) (2006) State of the world’s cities 2006/7. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. USAID India (2014) Population foundation of India, “Slum Level” vulnerability assessment scoring sheet “ under HUP (Health of urban poor) programGoogle Scholar
  33. UTTIPEC (2010) Uses within 500 m influence zone of MRTS as part of transit oriented development policy. Delhi Development Authority, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  34. Vaid A, Mammen A, Primrose B, Kang G (2007) Infant mortality in an urban slum. Indian J Pediatr 74(5):449–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity School of Architecture and PlanningAmity UniversityNoidaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Geography, Delhi School of EconomicsUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations