Disperse Systems: Suspensions

  • Ashlee D. Brunaugh
  • Hugh D. C. Smyth
  • Robert O. Williams III
Part of the AAPS Introductions in the Pharmaceutical Sciences book series (AAPSINSTR)


This chapter covers crucial aspects of the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. Properties relevant to suspension stability and drug delivery are discussed, including particle settling, flocculation, particle aggregation, viscosity, zeta potential, and Ostwald ripening are discussed. Methods of particle size reduction are introduced, including those to produce nanoparticles. An extensive discussion of relevant excipients is also included.


Suspension Dispersion Viscosity Particle settling Suspension stability Particle size reduction Colloidal dispersion Nanoparticles Suspending agents Surfactant 

Further Reading

  1. Suggested readings for the student include the following texts:Google Scholar
  2. 1.
    Iyer AK, et al. Exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect for tumor targeting. Drug Discov Today. 2006;11(17):812–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 2.
    Jermain SV, Brough C, Williams RO III. Amorphous solid dispersions and nanocrystal technologies for poorly water-soluble drug delivery–an update. Int J Pharm. 2018;535(1–2):379–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 3.
    Leleux J, Williams RO III. Recent advances in mechanical reduction methods: particulate systems. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2014;40(3):289–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 4.
    Wong J, et al. Suspensions for intravenous (IV) injection: a review of development, preclinical and clinical aspects. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60:939–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashlee D. Brunaugh
    • 1
  • Hugh D. C. Smyth
    • 1
  • Robert O. Williams III
    • 1
  1. 1.College of PharmacyThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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