Lightning Fault Rate of Power Distribution Line in Wind Farm in Winter Lightning Area

  • Koji MichishitaEmail author
  • Shigeru Yokoyama
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 598)


In Japan, the total number of the faults on a 6.6 kV power distribution line has decreased due to installation of ZnO (zinc oxide) surge arresters at the interval of less than 200 m. However, the proportion of faults caused by lightning still keeps a high value, 10–15%. The damage of arresters occurs frequently at the coast of the Sea of Japan where thunderstorms in winter are notable. It is shown that the surge arresters are damaged when the absorption energy exceeds the rated value. One of the characteristics of winter lightning is high energy resulting in the arrester damage. In this paper, the authors consider damages of surge arrester on a distribution line connected to the wind turbine through the EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transient Program). The authors show the probability of surge arrester damage by the lightning flash to the turbine and discuss the lightning protection design against surge arrester damage.


Lightning Distribution line Fault rate 


  1. 1.
    Miyake, K., Suzuki, T., Takashima, M., Takuma, M., Tada, T.: Winter lightning on Japan Sea coast-lightning striking frequency to tall structures. IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 5, 1370–1376 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miki, M., Miki, T., Wada, A., Asakawa, A., Asuka, Y., Honjo, N.: Characteristics of winter lightning flashes to wind turbines in the coastal area of the Sea of Japan - Observation results of lightning for wind turbines at Nikaho Kougen Wind Farm from 2005 to 2008. CRIEPI report, H09005, June 2010. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Furukawa, M., Michishita, K., Honjo, N., Yokoyama, S.: A study of characteristics of winter lightning from measurements of current waveform on wind turbine. In: 27th Annual Conference on P&E Society IEEJ (2015). (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berger, K., Anderson, R.B., Kroninger, H.: Parameters of lightning flashes. Electra 41, 23–37 (1976)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K.U. Leuven EMTP Center: Alternative transients program (ATP) rule book. Canadian/American EMTP User Group (1987)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marti, J.R.: Accurate modelling of frequency-dependent transmission line in electromagnetic transient simulations. IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst. PAS-101(1), 147–157 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nakada, K., Yokota, T., Yokoyama, S., Asakawa, A., Kawabata, T.: Distribution arrester outages caused by lightning backflow current flowing from customer’s facility into power distribution lines. IEEJ Trans. Power Energy 117(10), 1382–1388 (1997). (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yokoyama, S., Sugimoto, H., Wada, M., Koide, K., Kosuge, T., Nakada, K., Urata, T.: Lightning protection of power distribution lines located in mountainous areas. CRIEPI report, T64 (2001). (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miyake, K., Szuki, T., Shinjou, K.: Characteristics of winter lightning current on Japan Sea coast. IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 7(3), 1450–1456 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shizuoka UniversityHamamatsuJapan

Personalised recommendations