Nanovaccines pp 319-336 | Cite as

Perspectives for the Field of Nanovaccines

  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
  • Omar González-Ortega


Nanomaterials can be used as antigen delivery vehicles with immunostimulatory activity, leading to an improved immune response, which is of relevance in the development of new vaccines termed nanovaccines. These are a promise of modern vaccinology to address some of the challenges in the field that include safety and efficacy enhancement and costs reduction. The previous chapters of this book were focused on individual nanomaterials applied to mucosal vaccine development (namely gold, PLGA, silica, and chitosan nanoparticles; nanotubes, nanogels, liposomes, and virus-like particles). In this chapter, the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs for this field are identified and discussed. Thus far, the most advanced nanovaccines are those based on VLPs, nanogels, liposomes, and PLGA nanoparticles, being the former approach the one resulting in human and animal vaccines available in the market. Some clinical trials have supported the safety and efficacy of other nanovaccines, such as those based on nanogels and liposomes. Overall, it is required to expand clinical trials and the development of mucosal formulations, as well as to assess novel vaccine designs, such as those comprising biosynthesized nanomaterials or targeting specific cells, and optimize nanomaterials properties to avoid the use of accessory adjuvants. Controversies on toxicity, regulatory issues, and the difficulties to progress into clinical trials and commercialization are discussed. Indeed, we might have effective, safe, convenient, and cheap vaccines through nanotechnology in the near future.


Toxicity Clinical trial ‘Valley of death’ Green synthesis Biosynthesis VLPs Multifunctional nanoparticles 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
    • 1
  • Omar González-Ortega
    • 2
  1. 1.Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud y BiomedicinaUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis PotosíMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí San Luis PotosíMexico

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