Nanovaccines pp 267-318 | Cite as

Virus-Like Particles-Based Mucosal Nanovaccines

  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
  • Omar González-Ortega


Virus-like particles (VLPs) are protein complexes that resemble a virus and constitute highly immunogenic entities as they mimic the pathogen at an important degree. Among nanovaccines, those based on VLPs are the most successful thus far with some formulations already commercialized (e.g., those against hepatitis B and E viruses and human papillomavirus). This chapter highlights the advantages of VLPs-based vaccines, describing approaches for their design and transmittance of the state of the art for mucosal VLPs-based vaccines development. Several candidates have been produced in insect cells, plants, and E. coli and mammalian cells; they have been mainly evaluated in i.n. and oral immunization schemes. i.n. vaccines against the influenza virus and the Norwalk virus are the most advanced applications. For the latter, i.n. formulations are under clinical evaluation. Perspectives for the field comprise the expansion of the use of low-cost platforms such as plants and bacteria, the development of multiepitopic/multivalent vaccines, and computationally designed VLPs. Mucosal VLPs-based vaccines stand as a major promising approach in vaccinology and the initiation of more clinical trials is envisaged in a short time.


Multimeric protein Protein assembly Respiratory syncytial virus Influenza virus Norwalk virus Phage 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
    • 1
  • Omar González-Ortega
    • 2
  1. 1.Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud y BiomedicinaUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis PotosíMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí San Luis PotosíMexico

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