Actual Changes of Mountainous Landscapes in Inner Asia as a Result of Anthropogenic Effects

  • Kirill V. Chistyakov
  • Svetlana A. GavrilkinaEmail author
  • Elena S. Zelepukina
  • Galina N. Shastina
  • Mikhail I. Amosov
Part of the Landscape Series book series (LAEC, volume 26)


Mountain landscapes’ reactions on global changes are of particular interest since they reproduce long-term trends contributing to generation of forecasts and scenarios for sustainable regional development. The series of observations in mountainous Inner Asia over the climate, the glacier balance, river runoff lasting for about half a century allowed us to clarify the spatial gradients of the geosystem structure and functioning characteristics, and, therefore, resulting in parameterizing their spatial and temporal variability. Digital elevation models (DEM) with the grid points determining the qualitative and quantitative attributes of geosystems, enabled us to analyze the modern landscape structure, to establish probabilistic relationships between the distributions of geographic components, and to estimate the ranges of climatic characteristics within which these components’ balance can be realized. Among the tundra geosystems, the most cold-resistant are the cobresia and dryad ones; herbal species are the least dependent on air temperature, while dwarf shrub tundra tends towards warmer environment. However, grass-sedge and dwarf shrub tundra spreading evidences the critical contribution of geological and geomorphological impacts. Ecological and climatic niches of the normal geosystem functioning can be used in forecasting the landscape transformation under climate changes. The application of statistical methods allows evaluating the contribution of landscape genesis’ various factors to the formation of the high-altitude territory structure.


Landscape dynamics Anthropogenic load Climatic changes 



The work of the geographers of St. Petersburg State University in Inner Asia is supported by RFBR grant 18-05-00860 and Russian Geographical Society (


  1. All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information – World Data Center (FGBU VNIIGMI-WDC). Accessed 04 Aug 2018.
  2. Beruchashvili, N. L. (1986). Four dimensions of a landscape. Moscow: Mysl’. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  3. Cherepanov, S. K. (1995). Vascular plants of Russia and neighboring countries (within the former USSR). St. Petersburg: Mir i sem’ya. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Chistyakov, K. V., & Kaledin, N. V. (Eds.). (2010). Mountains and people: Changes in landscapes and ethnoses of the inland mountains of Russia. St. Petersburg: VVM. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  5. Chistyakov, K. V., Moskalenko, I. G., & Zelepukina, E. S. (2009). Climate of Ubsu-Nur depression: Spatial model. Proceedings of Russian Geographical Society, 141(1), 44–61. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  6. Cox, D., & Snell, E. (1981). Applied statistics. Principles and examples. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Dirksen, V. G., & Smirnova, M. A. (1997). Characteristics of the vegetation of the northern macroslope of the high-mountain massif Mongun-Taiga (Southwestern Tuva). Botanical Journal, 82(10), 120–131. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  8. Ganyushkin, D. A., Zelepukina, E. S., & Gavrilkina, S. A. (2015). Forecasts of landscape dynamics of the Mongun-Taiga massif (southwestern Tyva) under given scenarios of climate change. In the World of Scientific Discoveries, 4(64), 273–307. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  9. Ganyushkin, D. A., Chistyakov, K. V., Volkov, I. V., Bantcev, D. V., Terekhov, A. V., & Kunaeva, E. P. (2017). Present glaciers and their dynamics in the arid parts of the Altai mountains. Geosciences, 7(4), 117. Scholar
  10. Gavrilkina, S., & Zelepukina, E. (2017). Dynamics of mountain forest ecosystems in the continental sector of Siberia: Patterns and reasons. Proceedings of 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo Conference SGEM, 17(32), 797–804.Google Scholar
  11. Isachenko, G. A., & Reznikov, A. I. (1996). Dynamics of landscapes of the taiga of the North-West of European Russia. St. Petersburg: Russian Geographical Society Publishing. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  12. Kuminova, A. V. (1960). Vegetation cover of Altai. Novosibirsk: SB AS USSR. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. Lesovaya, S. N., & Goryachkin, S.V. (2007). Cryogenic soils of Altai highlands: Morphology, mineralogy, genesis, classification problems and connection with soils of polar regions. In Proceedings of the international conference “cryogenic resources of the polar regions” (Vol. 2, pp. 96–99). Salekhard. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  14. Makunina, N. I. (2014). Mountainous forest-steppe of the South-Eastern Altai and South-Western Tuva. Vegetation of Russia, 24, 86–100. (in Russian).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mamay, I. I. (1992). Landscape dynamics. Research methods. Moscow: MSU Publishing House. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  16. Ogureeva, G. N. (1980). Botanical geography of Altai. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  17. Puzachenko, Y. G., & Skulkin, B. C. (1981). Structure of vegetation in the forest zone of the USSR. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  18. Riahi, K., Rao, S., et al. (2011). RCP 8.5 – A scenario of comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions. Climatic Change, 109(1), 33–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schmidt, G. A., et al. (2006). Present-day atmospheric simulations using GISS Model E: Comparison to in situ, satellite, and reanalysis data. Journal of Climate, 19, 153–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shishov, L. L., et al. (2004). Classification and diagnostics of soils in Russia. Smolensk: Oykumena. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  21. Sobolevskaya, K.A. (1950). Vegetation of Tuva. Novosibirsk. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  22. Volkenshtein, M. V. (2006). Entropy and information. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  23. Volkova, E. A. (1994). Botanical geography of the Mongolian and Gobi Altai. St. Petersburg: BIN. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  24. Zelepukina, E. S., Gavrilkina, S. A., Lesovaya, S. N., & Galanina, O. V. (2018). Landscape structure of the high-altitude ecotone band of the high-mountain massif Mongun-Taiga. Proceedings of Russian Geographical Society, 150(2), 33–47. (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirill V. Chistyakov
    • 1
  • Svetlana A. Gavrilkina
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elena S. Zelepukina
    • 1
    • 2
  • Galina N. Shastina
    • 1
  • Mikhail I. Amosov
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Federal State Budget-Financed Educational Institution of Higher EducationThe Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of TelecommunicationsSt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations