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Hematologic Malignancies: PET/CT for Response Assessment of Hematologic Malignancies Following Immunotherapy

  • Angelo Castello
  • Egesta Lopci
Chapter

Abstract

Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically changed the oncological scenario in the last years. The outbreak in response also for cancers heavily pre-treated and the unpreceded duration of disease control have promoted the introduction in clinical practice of several immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Monoclonal antibodies such as nivolumab (anti-PD1), pembrolizumab (anti-PD1), atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1), avelumab (anti-PD-L1), and durvalumab (anti-PD-L1) have been FDA or EMA approved and become nowadays the standard therapy for multiple malignancies. This comprises hematologic malignancies, such as relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Along with conventional response patterns, immunotherapy with ICI has promoted pseudo-progression, as part of the therapeutic effect, frequently leading to unnecessary treatment withdrawal. Consequently, several response criteria have been adapted to overcome the problem. In cHL, the LYRIC (lymphoma response to immunomodulatory therapy criteria) have been suggested. Although, Deauville score might still be a valid approach to define patients likely to benefit from ICI. In the current chapter, a collection of typical case reports is proposed to illustrate cHL response to immunotherapy.

Keywords

Malignant lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Checkpoint inhibitors Immunotherapy Response 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelo Castello
    • 1
  • Egesta Lopci
    • 1
  1. 1.Nuclear MedicineHumanitas Clinical and Research Hospital - IRCCSRozzanoItaly

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