Discussion and Conclusion

  • Benjamin HawkinsEmail author
  • Chris Holden
  • Sophie Mackinder
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Public Health Policy Research book series (PSPHPR)


This chapter discusses the study findings in light of relevant theory on policy transfer and multi-level governance. Three theoretical conclusions are made: (1) public health policies today are often subject to a policy transfer ‘web’, in which networks of actors involving both policy-makers and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are required to navigate various different jurisdictions and levels of governance in order to ensure that a policy is successfully adopted; (2) transnational corporations have analytically-significant consequences for policy transfer processes and may act intentionally to disrupt such processes; and (3) the activities of transnational corporate actors can shape subsequent transfer processes, as policy-makers and NGOs build relationships and coalitions in an effort to adapt to, and counteract, global corporate political strategies.


Policy transfer Multi-level governance Transnational tobacco companies Standardised packaging Plain packaging EU Tobacco Products Directive 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Hawkins
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chris Holden
    • 2
  • Sophie Mackinder
    • 3
  1. 1.London School of Hygiene & Tropical MedicineLondonUK
  2. 2.University of YorkYorkUK
  3. 3.Social Policy and Social WorkUniversity of YorkYorkUK

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