• Paul Winfree


Conflict and ambiguity were built into the budget system from the beginning, requiring cooperation between equal branches constantly vying for power. The history of the budget process reflects a combination of how these branches have dealt with electoral politics as well as economic policy. When the budget process has been successful its structure does not have a material effect on the outcomes. However, it has not been very effective in helping to resolve fundamental disagreements about policy or politics. This problem has become heightened over time as the budget process has been asked to reflect more disputed matters. The introduction also examines the structure of the budget system in early America, including its weaknesses for managing public credit and the foundations for the new Constitution.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Winfree
    • 1
  1. 1.Heritage FoundationWashington, DCUSA

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