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Nanobiotechnology in Parkinson’s Disease

  • Pablo Vicente Torres-Ortega
  • Iván Martínez-Valbuena
  • Gloria Martí-Andrés
  • Amira Sayed Hanafy
  • María Rosario Luquin
  • Elisa GarbayoEmail author
  • María José Blanco-PrietoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by a combination of motor and nonmotor symptoms that gradually appear as consequence of the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies and dystrophic neurites, two abnormal structures composed by misfolded α-synuclein. Recent evidences suggest that the toxicity caused by α-synuclein relies on its oligomerization, which precedes the formation of the large α-synuclein aggregates. Several important contributions have been made in the PD field during recent years. However, an early and accurate diagnosis, together with the availability of disease-modifying therapies, still represents a major unmet need. The emergence of nanotechnology has provided new systems like ultra-sensitive biosensors that are able to detect PD-related biomarkers in complex but more accessible biological fluids, and novel MRI agents for contrast enhancement in imaging applications. Nanotechnology could also revolutionize the PD therapeutic pipeline, which is currently focused on the relief of motor symptoms. To date, the efficacy of nanotechnology in PD treatment has been supported by a large number of preclinical studies that have encapsulated different drugs in a wide range of nanoscale delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes, and quantum dots. In this chapter, we provide an overview of recent advances in the application of nanomedicine to both the diagnosis and treatment of PD. The main challenges anticipated, future perspectives, and the possibility of transferring these studies to future clinical trials are also discussed.

Keywords

Parkinson’s disease Nanotechnology Diagnosis Treatment α-synuclein Neuroprotective therapies 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pablo Vicente Torres-Ortega
    • 1
  • Iván Martínez-Valbuena
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gloria Martí-Andrés
    • 2
    • 3
  • Amira Sayed Hanafy
    • 4
    • 5
  • María Rosario Luquin
    • 2
    • 3
  • Elisa Garbayo
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • María José Blanco-Prieto
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and NutritionUniversidad de NavarraPamplonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Neurology and NeurosciencesCentro de Investigación Médica Aplicada and Clínica Universidad de NavarraPamplonaSpain
  3. 3.Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, IdiSNAPamplonaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug ManufacturingPharos University in Alexandria (PUA)AlexandriaEgypt
  5. 5.Department of PharmacyLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany

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