Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) as Protagonists of Ever-Sustained Agriculture: An Introduction

  • Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari
  • Meenu Saraf
  • Shrivardhan Dheeman
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 23)


The rhizosphere is a zone of soil surrounding to the plant roots, where the biology and chemistry of the soil is influenced by root metabolites pumped into the soil, called root exudates. The rhizosphere of ample quorum of microorganisms, thus, regarded as an ecology. The beneficial bacteria in the rhizosphere are recognized as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that influence plant growth and health promotion by several means of mechanisms. These can influence plant traits under fluctuating environmental conditions and improve yield productivity in a sustainable way. The use of  PGPR in field crops has attended by enormous researches to enhance crop production and productivity in a sustainable manner. The inoculation strategies such as co-inoculation of two or more beneficial bacteria as bioinoculant apparently provided greater phytostimulation perhaps because of the synergistic and multifarious effects due to co-occurrence and co-interaction with field crops. PGPR are emerging tools of sustainable agriculture; also providing strategic avenues to combat biotic and abiotic stresses of crops. Further, this chapter introduces PGPR as a central candidate with multifaceted mechanisms and influences on sustainable management of field crops.


Rhizosphere PGPR Biofilm Bacterial diversity Field crops 


Conflict of Interest

The author(s) have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari
    • 1
  • Meenu Saraf
    • 2
  • Shrivardhan Dheeman
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Botany and MicrobiologyGurukula Kangri VishwavidyalayaHaridwarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, School of SciencesGujarat UniversityAhmadabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologySardar Bhagwan Singh UniversityDehradunIndia

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