Advertisement

A New Look at the Supervisor Role in Performance Management

  • Montana L. Drawbaugh
  • Jane R. WilliamsEmail author
  • Erzhuo (Ernie) Wang
Chapter

Abstract

Supervisors and employees hold consistently negative impressions of the performance management (PM) process in most organizations. In this chapter, we propose that some of the uneven outcomes related to this important human resource process may be due to factors related to the supervisor; ones they may not even be aware of. We review the extant literature on some factors related to the supervisor: implicit person theory (IPT) and commitment to performance management. In addition, we review some relatively new research, which examines the role of the supervisor in providing feedback in the PM process. Specifically, we integrate the growing evidence that supervisors who report an incremental IPT are more likely to engage in positive PM behaviors such as providing support, giving elaborative feedback, and initiating more coaching behaviors. Moreover, employees of these supervisors report more positive perceptions of these processes. We also introduce a new construct, commitment to performance management, and develop theory about how considering affective, normative, and continuous commitment toward performance management may predict differential PM behaviors that supervisors initiate. For instance, supervisors who are affectively committed (e.g. really believe in the value and importance of PM) are much more likely to engage in the best practices associated with PM than supervisors who are continuously committed (e.g., only completing PM practices because there would be a cost to not participate). Finally, we review some recently published research that focuses on the actual content of the feedback and conversation exchanged between supervisors and employees (Meinecke et al. J Leadersh Org Stud 24:230, 2017; Meinecke et al. J Appl Psychol 102:1054, 2017; Schaerer et al. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 144:171:2018). Moreover, we integrate these findings within the frameworks of IPT and commitment to performance management and identify some potentially interesting new streams of research.

Keywords

Performance Management Supervisor Implicit Person Theory Entity Incremental Commitment to Performance Management Relationship Oriented Task Oriented Transparency Illusions 

References

  1. Antonioni, D., & Park, H. (2001). The relationship between rater affect and three sources of 360-degree feedback ratings. Journal of Management, 27(4), 479–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asmuß, B. (2008). Performance appraisal interviews: Preference organization in assessment sequences. Journal of Business Communication, 45, 408–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cardy, R. L., & Dobbins, G. H. (1994). Performance appraisal: Alternative perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  4. Chiu, C. Y., Hong, Y. Y., & Dweck, C. S. (1997). Lay dispositionism and implicit theories of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 19–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Clifton, J. (2012). Conversation analysis in dialogue with stocks of interactional knowledge: Facework and appraisal interviews. Journal of Business Communication, 49, 283–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 267–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Elicker, J. D., Levy, P. E., & Hall, R. J. (2006). The role of leader–member exchange in the performance appraisal process. Journal of Management, 32, 531–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giles, W. F., & Mossholder, K. W. (1990). Employee reactions to contextual and session components of performance appraisal. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 371–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gosserand, R. H., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2005). Emotional display rules and emotional labor: The moderating role of commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1256–1264.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, J. P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 474–487.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Heslin, P. A., Latham, G. P., & VandeWalle, D. (2005). The effect of implicit person theory on performance appraisals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 842–856.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Heslin, P. A., & VandeWalle, D. (2005). Self-regulation derailed: Implicit person theories and feedback-seeking. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  14. Heslin, P. A., & VandeWalle, D. (2011). Performance appraisal procedural justice: The role of a manager’s implicit person theory. Journal of Management, 37, 1694–1718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heslin, P. A., VandeWalle, D., & Latham, G. P. (2006). Keen to help? Managers’ implicit person theories and their subsequent employee coaching. Personnel Psychology, 59, 871–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heyman, G. D., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Children’s thinking about traits: Implications for judgments of the self and others. Child Development, 69, 391–403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Hong, Y. Y., Chiu, C. Y., Dweck, C. S., Lin, D. M. S., & Wan, W. (1999). Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: A meaning system approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 588–5Fsi99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ilgen, D. R., Fisher, C. D., & Taylor, M. S. (1979). Consequences of individual feedback on behavior in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 349–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Judge, T. A., & Ferris, G. R. (1993). Social context of performance evaluation decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 36(1), 80–105.Google Scholar
  20. Kam, C., Risavy, S. D., Perunovic, E., & Plant, L. (2014). Do subordinates formulate an impression of their manager's implicit person theory? Applied Psychology, 63, 267–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keeping, L. M., & Levy, P. E. (2000). Performance appraisal reactions: Measurement, modeling, and method bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 708–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Levy, S. R., & Dweck, C. S. (1997). Implicit theory measures: Reliability and validity data for adults and children. New York: Unpublished manuscript, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  23. Levy, S. R., Stroessner, S. J., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Stereotype formation and endorsement: The role of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1421–1436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Medvedeff, M., Gregory, J. B., & Levy, P. E. (2008). How attributes of the feedback message affect subsequent feedback seeking: The interactive effects of feedback sign and type. Psychologica Belgica, 48, 109–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meinecke, A. L., Klonek, F. E., & Kauffeld, S. (2017). Appraisal participation and perceived voice in annual appraisal interviews: Uncovering contextual factors. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 24, 230–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meinecke, A. L., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., & Kauffeld, S. (2017). What happens during annual appraisal interviews? How leader–follower interactions unfold and impact interview outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102, 1054–1074.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Advanced topics in organizational behavior: Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward a general model. Human Resource Management Review, 11, 299–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murphy, K. R., & Cleveland, J. N. (1995). Understanding performance appraisal: Social, organizational, and goal-based perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub.Google Scholar
  32. Nathan, B. R., Mohrman, A. M., & Milliman, J. (1991). Interpersonal relations as a context for the effects of appraisal interviews on performance and satisfaction: A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 352–369.Google Scholar
  33. Nease, A. A., Mudgett, B. O., & Quiñones, M. A. (1999). Relationships among feedback sign, self-efficacy, and acceptance of performance feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 806–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neubert, M. J., & Cady, S. H. (2001). Program commitment: A multi-study longitudinal field investigation of its impact and antecedents. Personnel Psychology, 54, 421–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Podsakoff, P. M., & Farh, J. L. (1989). Effects of feedback sign and credibility on goal setting and task performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 44, 45–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pulakos, E. D. (2009). Performance management: A new approach for driving business results. Singapore: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pulakos, E. D., Hanson, R. M., Arad, S., & Moye, N. (2015). Performance management can be fixed: An on-the-job experiential learning approach for complex behavior change. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 8, 51–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pulakos, E. D., & O’Leary, R. S. (2011). Why is performance management broken? Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4, 146–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Purcell, J., & Hutchinson, S. (2007). Front-line managers as agents in the HRM-performance causal chain: Theory, analysis and evidence. Human Resource Management Journal, 17, 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schaerer, M., Kern, M., Berger, G., Medvec, V., & Swaab, R. I. (2018). The illusion of transparency in performance appraisals: When and why accuracy motivation explains unintentional feedback inflation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 144, 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Steelman, L. A., Levy, P. E., & Snell, A. F. (2004). The feedback environment scale: Construct definition, measurement, and validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stinglhamber, F., & Vandenberghe, C. (2003). Organizations and supervisors as sources of support and targets of commitment: A longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 251–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vandenberghe, C., Bentein, K., & Stinglhamber, F. (2004). Affective commitment to the organization, supervisor, and work group: Antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, 47–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang, E. (2016). Interaction effect of manager’s implicit person theory and perceived performance management purpose on their commitment to performance management, Master’s Thesis Completed at IUPUI.Google Scholar
  45. Wang, X. M., Wong, K. F. E., & Kwong, J. Y. (2010). The roles of rater goals and ratee performance levels in the distortion of performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 546–561.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Williams, J. R., & Levy, P. E. (2000). Investigating some neglected criteria: The influence of organizational level and perceived system knowledge on appraisal reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14(2), 501–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yukl, G., Gordon, A., & Taber, T. (2002). A hierarchical taxonomy of leadership behavior: Integrating a half century of behavior research. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9, 15–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Montana L. Drawbaugh
    • 1
  • Jane R. Williams
    • 1
    Email author
  • Erzhuo (Ernie) Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIndiana University Purdue University IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.School of ManagementUniversity of BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations