Advertisement

Self-Feeling pp 123-148 | Cite as

The Features of Self-Feeling

  • Gerhard Kreuch
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Phenomenology book series (CTPH, volume 107)

Abstract

The third part presents the main claim of the book. In a nutshell, it argues that self-consciousness must be understood as permeated with affectivity. Self-consciousness is at its core an affective phenomenon, it is self-feeling. Self-feeling is an aspect of our fundamental affectivity. It can be understood as existential feeling. This chapter summarizes the main features of self-feeling building on the first and second part of the book. It is a pre-reflective, pre-propositional, bodily feeling that shapes our space of possibilities. It is the affective disclosure of individual existence. The chapter closes with clarifications to potential questions, such as why it is a feeling, how we can be oblivious of it, if animals can have self-feeling, and if there is one or many self-feelings.

Literature

  1. Allen, C. and M. Trestman. 2015. Animal Consciousness. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/consciousness-animal/. Accessed on: 27 July 2017.
  2. Andrews, K. 2015. The Animal Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Animal Cognition. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Anscombe, G.E.M. 1957. Intention. Cambrigde, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, D.M. 1968. A Materialist Theory of the Mind. New York: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bermudez, J.L. 1998. The Paradox of Self-consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———. 2017. Understanding “I”: Language and Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Block, N. 2007. Consciousness, Function, and Representation, Collected Papers. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bokhorst, C.L., M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, R.M. Pasco Fearon, M.H. van IJzendoorn, P. Fonagy, and C. Schuengel. 2003. The Importance of Shared Environment in Mother–Infant Attachment Security: A Behavioral Genetic Study. Child Development 74 (6): 1769–1782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Colombetti, G. 2014. The Feeling Body. Affective Science Meets the Enactive Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cutrona, C., D. Russell, A. Brown, L.A. Clark, R. Hessling, and K. Gardner. 2005. Neighborhood Context, Personality, and Stressful Life Events as Predictors of Depression Among African American Women. Journal of Abnomal Psychology 114 (1): 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Damasio, A. 1994. Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 2003. Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Orlando: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2010. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  15. Davidson, D. 1980. Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Evans, G. 1982. The Varieties of Reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Fichte, J.G. 1971. In Fichte Werke. 11 Bände, ed. I.H. Fichte. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  18. Frank, M. 1991b. Selbstbewusstseinstheorien von Fichte bis Sartre. Suhrkamp: Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2002a. Selbstgefühl. Suhrkamp: Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 2012. Ansichten der Subjektivität. Suhrkamp: Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
  21. Gallagher, S. 2010. Defining Consciousness: The Importance of Non-reflective Self-awareness. Pragmatics & Cognition 18 (3): 561–569.Google Scholar
  22. Gallagher, S., and D. Zahavi. 2008. The Phenomenological Mind. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Gallup, G. 1970. Chimpanzees: Self-recognition. Science 167: 86–87.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 1979. Self-recognition in Chimpanzees and Man: A Developmental and Comparative Perspective. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gendlin, E.T. 1978. Focusing. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  26. Goethe, J.W.V 1998 [1833]. Maxims and Reflections. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  27. Griffiths, P., and A. Scarantino. 2009. Emotions in the Wild: The Situated Perspective on Emotion. In The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition, ed. P. Robbins and M. Aydede, 437–453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gurwitsch, A. 1941. A Non-egological Conception of Consciousness. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 1: 325–338.Google Scholar
  29. Heidegger, M. 2006 [1927]. Sein und Zeit. Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
  30. Henrich, D. 1966. Fichtes ursprüngliche Einsicht. In Subjektivität und Metaphysik. Festschrift für Wolfgang Cramer, ed. D. Henrich and H. Wagner, 188–233. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 1970. Selbstbewusstsein. Kritische Einleitung in eine Theorie. In Hermeneutik und Dialektik. Band I, ed. R. Bubner, K. Cramer, and R. Wiehl, 257–284. Tübingen: Mohr.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 1982b. Fluchtlinien. Philosophische Essays. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 1982c. Selbstverhältnisse. Gedanken und Auslegungen zu den Grundlagen der klassischen deutschen Philosophie. Stuttgart: Reclam.Google Scholar
  34. ———. 1999. Bewußtes Leben. Untersuchungen zum Verhältnis von Subjektivität und Metaphysik. Stuttgart: Reclam.Google Scholar
  35. ———. 2007. Denken und Selbstsein. Vorlesungen über Subjektivität. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  36. Hofstede, G. 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Huebner, B., M. Bruno, and H. Sarkissian. 2010. What Does the Nation of China Think About Phenomenal States? Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2): 225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hurley, S. 1998. Consciousness in Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Kant, I. 1974 [1781/1787]. Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  40. Korsgaard, C.M. 2009. The Activity of Reason. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 83 (2): 23–43.Google Scholar
  41. Kriegel, U. 2009. Subjective Consciousness. A Self-representational Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Kriegel, U., and K. Williford. 2006. Self-representational Approaches to Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  43. LeDoux, J. 1992. Emotion and the Amygdala. In The Amygdala, ed. J.P. Aggleton, 339–351. New York: Wiley-Liss.Google Scholar
  44. ———. 1996. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  45. Low, P. 2012. The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness. Paper Presented at Francis Crick Memorial Conference on Consciousness in Human and non-Human Animals at the University of Cambridge, edited by J. Panksepp, D. Reiss, D. Edelman, B. Van Swinderen, P. Low and C. Koch. July 7, 2012.Google Scholar
  46. Margolis, E. and S. Laurence. 2014. Concepts. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/concepts/. Accessed on: 27 July 2017.
  47. Markus, H.R., and S. Kitayama. 1991. Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation. Psychological Review 98 (2): 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. ———. 2010. Cultures and Selves: A Cycle of Mutual Constitution. Perspectives on Psychological Science 5 (4): 420–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McDowell, J. 1994. Mind and World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  50. ———. 1998. Mind, Value, and Reality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Moran, R. 2001. Authority and Estrangement: An Essay on Self-knowledge. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Murray, R.J., T. Brosch, and D. Sander. 2014. The Functional Profile of the Human Amygdala in Affective Processing: Insights from Intracranial Recordings. Cortex 60: 10–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Musholt, K. 2015. Thinking about Oneself. From Nonconceptual Content to the Concept of a Self. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  54. Nagel, T. 1974. What Is it Like to Be a Bat? The Philosophical Review 83 (4): 435–450.Google Scholar
  55. Peacocke, C. 2008. Truly Understood. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. ———. 2014. The Mirror of the World: Subjects, Consciousness, and Self-consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Pothast, U. 1988. Philosophisches Buch. Schrift unter der aus der Entfernung leitenden Frage, was es heißt, auf menschliche Weise lebendig zu sein. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  58. Ratcliffe, M. 2008. Feelings of Being. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. ———. 2012a. The Phenomenology of Existential Feeling. In Feelings of Being Alive, ed. S. Marienberg and J. Fingerhut, 23–54. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  60. ———. 2015a. Experiences of Depression: A Study in Phenomenology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. ———. 2016b. The Integrity of Intentionality: Sketch for a Phenomenological Study. In Phenomenology for the 21st Century, ed. J.A. Simmons and J.E. Hackett. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  62. ———. 2017a. Real Hallucinations. Psychiatric Illness, Intentionality, and the Interpersonal World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2017b. Selfhood, Schizophrenia, and the Interpersonal Regulation of Experience. In Embodiment, Enaction, and Culture, ed. T. Fuchs, C. Durt, and C. Tewes, 149–172. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  64. Rentfrow, P.J. 2010. Statewide Differences in Personality: Toward a Psychological Geography of the United States. American Psychologist 65 (6): 548–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rödl, S. 2007. Self-consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Rolls, E.T. 2014. Emotion and Decision-Making Explained. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Russell, J. 2003. Core Affect and the Psychological Construction of Emotion. Psychological Review 110: 145–172.Google Scholar
  68. Sander, D., J. Grafman, and T. Zalla. 2003. The Human Amygdala: An Evolved System for Relevance Detection. Reviews in the Neurosciences 14: 303–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schmid, H.B. 2005. Wir-Identität: reflexiv und vorreflexiv. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 53 (3): 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. ———. 2012. Wir-Intentionalität. Kritik des ontologischen Individualismus und Rekonstruktion der Gemeinschaft. Freiburg: Karl Alber.Google Scholar
  71. ———. 2014a. Expressing Group Attitudes. On First Person Plural Authority. Erkenntnis 79 (9): 1685–1701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. ———. 2016a. Being Well Together – Aristotle on Joint Activity and Common Sense. In Analytic and Continental Philosophy. Methods and Perspectives, Proceedings of the 37th International Wittgenstein Symposium, ed. S. Rinofner-Kreidl and H.A. Wiltsche, 289–308. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  73. ———. 2018. Collective Emotions. In The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intentionality, ed. K. Ludwig and M. Jankovic, 152–161. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Shakespeare, W. 1967 [1623]. As You Like It, ed. A. Latham, London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  75. Slaby, J. 2008b. Gefühl und Weltbezug: Die menschliche Affektivität im Kontext einer neo-existentialistischen Konzeption von Personalität. Paderborn: mentis.Google Scholar
  76. ———. 2012a. Affective Self-construal and the Sense of Ability. Emotion Review 4 (2): 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. ———. 2012c. Matthew Ratcliffes phänomenologische Theorie existenzieller Gefühle. In Emotionen, Sozialstruktur, und Moderne, ed. ed.A. Schnabel and R. Schützeichel, 75–91. Wiesbaden: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Slaby, J., and A. Stephan. 2008. Affective Intentionality and Self-consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2): 506–513.Google Scholar
  79. ———. 2011. Affektive Intentionalität, existenzielle Gefühle und Selbstbewusstsein. In Affektive Intentionalität. Beiträge zur welterschließenden Funktion der menschlichen Gefühle, ed. J. Slaby, A. Stephan, H. Walter, and S. Walter, 206–229. Paderborn: Mentis.Google Scholar
  80. Slaby, J., and P. Wüschner. 2014. Emotion and Agency. In Emotion and Value, ed. S. Roeser and C. Todd, 212–228. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Slaby, J., A. Paskaleva, and A. Stephan. 2013. Enactive Emotion and Impaired Agency in Depression. Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (7–8): 33–55.Google Scholar
  82. Standing, G. 2011. The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  83. Stephan, A. 2012. Emotions, Existential Feelings, and Their Regulation. Emotion Review 4 (2): 157–162.Google Scholar
  84. Stephan, A., K. Jacobs, A. Paskaleva, and W. Wilitzky. 2014. Existential and Atmospheric Feelings in Depressive Comportment. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 21 (2): 89–110.Google Scholar
  85. Stern, D.N. 1985. The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  86. The Schizophrenia Commission. 2012. The Abandoned Illness: A Report from the Schizophrenia Commission. London: Rethink Mental Illness.Google Scholar
  87. Tye, M. 1995. Ten Problems of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  88. Zahavi, D. 1999. Self-awareness and Alterity. A Phenomenological Investigation. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  89. ———. 2005. Subjectivity and Selfhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  90. ———. 2014. Self and Other: Exploring Subjectivity, Empathy, and Shame. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zahavi, D., and U. Kriegel. 2015. For-me-ness: What It Is and What It Is Not. In Philosophy of Mind and Phenomenology: Conceptual and Empirical Approaches, ed. D.O. Dahlstrom, A. Elpidorou, and W. Hopp, 36–53. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Kreuch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations