Advertisement

Cancers of the Intestine, the Liver, and the Biliary Tract

  • Paolo BoffettaEmail author
  • Francesca Donato
  • Doriane Gouas
  • André Nogueira da Costa
  • Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani
  • Pierre Hainaut
Chapter
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

Colorectal cancer is an important cancer worldwide, whose etiology is not fully understood. Known causes include several genetic factors, overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and heavy alcohol drinking. An etiologic role of diet is highly plausible but the evidence for specific factors, with the possible exception of processed meat, is not conclusive. Workers exposed to asbestos have been found at increased risk of colorectal cancer in several studies, but the evidence is not sufficiently strong to conclude in favor of a causal association. No other occupational factors have been linked to colorectal cancer. Liver cancer is a common cancer in many regions of the world and is the second cause of cancer-specific mortality. About 75% of liver cancers are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent type being cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). HCC develops in the context of a web of interactions between viral (HBV, HCV), environmental (alcohol, aflatoxin), and metabolic (fatty liver disease, obesity) factors. Genetic predisposition accounts for only a small fraction of the global burden of HCC. The only established occupational cause of liver cancer is vinyl chloride, which causes a rare type of neoplasm, angiosarcoma, and has also been associated with HCC. Detection and diagnosis of HCC is complicated by its occurrence in a background of chronic liver disease characterized by inflammation and cycles of hepatocyte proliferation and destruction. Markers used in clinical practice include serological and molecular markers of viral hepatitis, enzymatic tests for liver function and injury, and a growing list of plasma-based tumor markers, the current gold standard being alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Recent research has identified molecular changes in transcriptome, microRNAome, epigenome and, significantly, plasma proteome, that pave the way to the development of a new generation of biomarkers for early detection of HCC in different etiological contexts.

Keywords

Occupation Industry Colorectal cancer Liver cancer Gallbladder cancer 

References

  1. 1.
    Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase no. 11. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. http://globocan.iarc.fr.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beebe-Dimer J, Schottenfeld D. Cancers of the small intestine. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, editors. Cancer epidemiology and prevention. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 801–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bray F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Zanetti R, Ferlay J. Cancer incidence in five continents, vol. 11 (electronic version). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2017. http://ci5.iarc.fr.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research; 2007.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco smoke. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans. Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking, vol. 83. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2004. p. 51–1187.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fedirko V, Tramacere I, Bagnardi V, et al. Alcohol drinking and colorectal cancer risk: an overall and dose-response meta-analysis of published studies. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:1958–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giovannucci E, Wu K. Cancers of the colon and rectum. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, editors. Cancer epidemiology and prevention. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 809–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Selikoff IJ, Churg J, Hammond EC. Asbestos exposure and neoplasia. JAMA. 1964;188:22–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Institute of Medicine. Asbestos: selected cancers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Asbestos. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, volume 100—a review of human carcinogens, part C: arsenic, metals, fibres, and dusts. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2012. p. 219–310.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paris C, Thaon I, Herin F, et al. Occupational asbestos exposure and incidence of colon and rectal cancers in French men: the asbestos-related diseases cohort (ARDCo-Nut). Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125:409–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kjarheim K, Ulvestad B, Martinsen JI, Andersen A. Cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to asbestos in drinking water among lighthouse keepers (Norway). Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:593–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thygesen LC, Albertsen K, Johansen C, Grønbaek M. Cancer incidence among Danish brewery workers. Int J Cancer. 2005;116:774–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pukkala E, Martinsen JI, Lynge E, et al. Occupation and cancer—follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries. Acta Oncol. 2009;48:646–790.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hogstedt C, Jansson C, Hugosson M, Tinnerberg H, Gustavsson P. Cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps, 1958–2006. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:1708–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oddone E, Modonesi C, Gatta G. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: a quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(35):12431–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Theise ND, Curado MP, Franceschi S, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND, editors. WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. p. 205–16.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nakanuma Y, Curado MP, Franceschi S, Gores G, Paradis V, Sripa B, Tsui WMS, Wee A. WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system. In: Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND, editors. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. p. 217–24.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miettinen M, Fletcher CDM, Kindblom LG, Zimmermann A, Tsui WMS. WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system. In: Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND, editors. Mesenchymal tumours of the liver. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. p. 241–50.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parkin DM. The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:3030–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Block JB. Angiosarcoma of the liver following vinyl chloride exposure. JAMA. 1974;229:53–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boffetta P, Matisane L, Mundt KA, Dell LD. Metaanalysis of studies of occupational exposure to vinyl chloride in relation to cancer mortality. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2003;29:220–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mundt KA, Dell LD, Austin RP, et al. Historical cohort study of 10 109 men in the North American vinyl chloride industry, 1942–72: update of cancer mortality to 31 December 1995. Occup Environ Med. 2000;57:774–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ward E, Boffetta P, Andersen A, et al. Update of the follow-up of mortality and cancer incidence among European workers employed in the vinyl chloride industry. Epidemiology. 2001;12:710–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mundt KA, Dell DL, Crawford L, et al. Quantitative estimated exposure to vinyl chloride and risk of angiosarcoma of the liver and hepatocellular cancer in the US industry-wide vinyl chloride cohort: mortality update through 2013. Occup Environ Med. 2017;74:709–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Lipworth L, McLaughlin JK. Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003;12:427–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carreón T, Hein MJ, Hanley KW, et al. Coronary artery disease and Cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to vinyl chloride, carbon disulfide, rotating shift work, and o-toluidine at a chemical manufacturing plant. Am J Ind Med. 2014;57:398–411.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Vinyl chloride. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, volume 100—a review of human carcinogens, part F: chemical agents and related occupations. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2012. p. 415–78.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pirastu R, Baccini M, Biggeri A, Comba P. Epidemiologic study of workers exposed to vinyl chloride in Porto Marghera: mortality update. Epidemiol Prev. 2003;27:161–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wong RH, Chen PC, Wang JD, Du CL, Cheng TJ. Interaction of vinyl chloride monomer exposure and hepatitis B viral infection on liver cancer. J Occup Environ Med. 2003;45:379–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mastrangelo G, Fedeli U, Fadda E, et al. Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in vinyl chloride workers: synergisticeffect of occupational exposure with alcohol intake. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:1188–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Trichloroethylene. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, volume 106, Tetrachloroethylene, and some other chlorinated agents. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. p. 26–218.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hansen J, Sallmén M, Seldén AI, et al. Risk of cancer among workers exposed to trichloroethylene: analysis of three Nordic cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:869–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tetrachloroethylene. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, volume 106, Tetrachloroethylene, and some other chlorinated agents. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. p. 219–352.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vlaanderen J, Straif K, Pukkala E, et al. Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene and the risk of lymphoma, liver, and kidney cancer in four Nordic countries. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70:393–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Silver S, Pinkerton LE, Donald A. Retrospective cohort study of a microelectronics and business machine facility. Am J Ind Med. 2014;57:412–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lanes SF, Rothman KJ, Dreyer NA, Soden KJ. Mortality update of cellulose fiber production workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1993;19:426–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu T, Xu QE, Zhang CH, Zhang P. Occupational exposure to methylene chloride and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24:2037–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Autrup JL, Schmidt J, Autrup H. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 inanimal-feed production plant workers. Environ Health Perspect. 1993;99:195–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kauppinen T, Riala R, Seitsamo J, Hernberg S. Primary livercancer and occupational exposure. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1992;18:18–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alavanja MC, Malker H, Hayes RB. Occupational cancer risk associated with the storage and bulk handling of agricultural foodstuff. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1987;22:247–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kumagai S, Kurumatani N, Arimoto A, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma among offset colour proof-printing workers exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70:508–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kubo S, Nakanuma Y, Takemura S, et al. Case series of 17 patients with cholangiocarcinoma among young adult workers of a printing company in Japan. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2014;21:479–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kumagai S, Sobue T, Makiuchi T, et al. Relationship between cumulative exposure to 1,2dichloropropane and incidence risk of cholangiocarcinoma among offset printing workers. Occup Environ Med. 2016;73:545–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    OkamotoE KK, Endo G. Prevalence of bile duct cancer among printing industry workers in comparison with other industries. J Occup Health. 2013;55:511–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vlaanderen J, Straif K, Martinsen JI. Cholangiocarcinoma among workers in the printing industry: using the NOCCA database to elucidate the generalisability of a cluster report from Japan. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70:828–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ahrens W, Merletti F, Mirabelli D. Biliary tract cancer in male printers and typesetters in the European rare cancer case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 2014;71:591–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brandi G, Di Girolamo S, Farioli A. Asbestos: a hidden player behind the cholangiocarcinoma increase? Findings from a case–control analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24:911–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Farioli A, Straif K, Brandi G, et al. Occupational exposure to asbestos and risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a population-based case-control study in four Nordic countries. Occup Environ Med. 2018. (in press;75:191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Boulanger M, Morlais F, Bouvier V, et al. Digestive cancers and occupational asbestos exposure: incidence study in a cohort of asbestos plant workers. Occup Environ Med. 2015;72:792–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Laurent-Puig P, Zucman-Rossi J. Genetics of hepatocellular tumors. Oncogene. 2006;25:3778–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tokino T, Tamura H, Hori N, Matsubara K. Chromosome deletions associated with hepatitis B virus integration. Virology. 1991;185:879–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Murakami Y, Saigo K, Takashima H, et al. Large scaled analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integration in HBV related hepatocellular carcinomas. Gut. 2005;54:1162–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tarn C, Lee S, Hu Y, Ashendel C, Andrisani OM. Hepatitis B virus X protein differentially activates RAS-RAF-MAPK and JNK pathways in X-transforming versus non-transforming AML12 hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34671–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Feitelson MA, Sun B, Satiroglu Tufan NL, et al. Genetic mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2002;21:2593–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ueda H, Ullrich SJ, Gangemi JD, Kappel CA, Ngo L, Feitelson MA, Jay G. Functional inactivation but not structural mutation of p53 causes liver cancer. Nat Genet. 1995;9:41–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kim CM, Koike K, Saito I, Miyamura T, Jay G. HBx gene of hepatitis B virus induces liver cancer in transgenic mice. Nature. 1991;351:317–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chisari FV, Isogawa M, Wieland SF. Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2010;58:258–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wang HC, Huang W, Lai MD, Su IJ. Hepatitis B virus pre-S mutants, endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Sci. 2006;97:683–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gouas D, Shi H, Hainaut P. The aflatoxin-induced TP53 mutation at codon 249 (R249S): biomarker of exposure, early detection and target for therapy. Cancer Lett. 2009;286:29–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kew MC. Synergistic interaction between aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus in hepatocarcinogenesis. Liver Int. 2003;23:405–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Umoh NJ, Lesi OA, Mendy M, et al. Aetiological differences in demographical, clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Gambia. Liver Int. 2011;31:215–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jiang W, Wang XW, Unger T, Forgues M, Kim JW, Hussain SP, Bowman E, Spillare EA, Lipsky MM, Meck JM, Cavalli LR, Haddad BR, Harris CC. Cooperation of tumor-derived HBx mutants and p53-249(ser) mutant in regulating cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and aneuploidy in a telomerase-immortalized normal human hepatocyte-derived cell line. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:1011–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gouas DA, Shi H, Hautefeuille AH, et al. Effects of the TP53 p.R249S mutant on proliferation and clonogenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines: interaction with hepatitis B virus X protein. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1475–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rehermann B, Nascimbeni M. Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5:215–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Foy E, Li K, Sumpter R Jr, Loo YM, et al. Control of antiviral defenses through hepatitis C virus disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2986–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Li K, Foy E, Ferreon JC, et al. Immune evasion by hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of the toll-like receptor 3 adaptor protein TRIF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2992–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Majumder M, Ghosh AK, Steele R, Ray R, Ray RB. Hepatitis C virus NS5A physically associates with p53 and regulates p21/waf1 gene expression in a p53-dependent manner. J Virol. 2001;75:1401–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McClain CJ, Hill DB, Song Z, Deaciuc I, Barve S. Monocyte activation in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol. 2002;27:53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hoek JB, Pastorino JG. Ethanol, oxidative stress, and cytokine-induced liver cell injury. Alcohol. 2002;27:63–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lambert MP, Paliwal A, Vaissiere T, et al. Aberrant DNA methylation distinguishes hepatocellular carcinoma associated with HBV and HCV infection and alcohol intake. J Hepatol. 2011;54:705–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Marrogi AJ, Khan MA, van Gijssel HE, et al. Oxidative stress and p53 mutations in the carcinogenesis of iron overload-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:1652–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gu TL, Deng X, Huang F, et al. Survey of tyrosine kinase signaling reveals ROS kinase fusions in human cholangiocarcinoma. PLoS One. 2011;6:e15640.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Asbestos. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, volume 100—a review of human carcinogens, Part B: biological agents. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2012.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hollstein M, Marion MJ, Lehman T, et al. p53 mutations at A:T base pairs in angiosarcomas of vinyl chloride-exposed factory workers. Carcinogenesis. 1994;15:1–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Barbin A, Froment O, Boivin S, et al. p53 gene mutation pattern in rat liver tumors induced by vinyl chloride. Cancer Res. 1997;57:1695–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Przygodzki RM, Finkelstein SD, Keohavong P, et al. Sporadic and Thorotrast-induced angiosarcomas of the liver manifest frequent and multiple point mutations in K-ras-2. Lab Invest. 1997;76:153–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dragani TA. Risk of HCC: genetic heterogeneity and complex genetics. J Hepatol. 2010;52:252–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Allen KJ, Gurrin LC, Constantine CC, et al. Iron-overload-related disease in HFE hereditary hemochromatosis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:221–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pujol FH, Navas MC, Hainaut P, Chemin I. Worldwide genetic diversity of HBV genotypes and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2009;286:80–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Yu MW, Yeh SH, Chen PJ, et al. Hepatitis B virus genotype and DNA level and hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:265–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yang HI, Yeh SH, Chen PJ, et al. Associations between hepatitis B virus genotype and mutants and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:1134–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kuang SY, Jackson PE, Wang JB, et al. Specific mutations of hepatitis B virus in plasma predict liver cancer development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3575–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fang ZL, Sabin CA, Dong BQ, et al. Hepatitis B virus pre-S deletion mutations are a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: a matched nested case-control study. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2882–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gao ZY, Li T, Wang J, et al. Mutations in preS genes of genotype C hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:761–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hsing AW, Rashid A, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF. Biliary tract cancer. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, editors. Cancer epidemiology and prevention. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 787–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Boffetta P, Boccia S, La Vecchia C. A quick guide to cancer epidemiology. New York: Springer; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Malker HS, McLaughlin JK, Malker BK, et al. Biliary tract cancer and occupation in Sweden. Br J Ind Med. 1986;43:257–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kuzmickiene I, Didziapetris R, Stukonis M. Cancer incidence in the workers cohort of textile manufacturing factory in Alytus, Lithuania. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:147–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gamble J. Risk of gastrointestinal cancers from inhalation and ingestion of asbestos. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;52. Suppl:S124–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ahrens W, Mambetova C, Bourdon-Raverdy N, et al. Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds and biliary tract cancer among men. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2007;33:387–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lin Y, Nishiyama T, Kurosawa M. Association between shift work and the risk of death from biliary tract cancer in Japanese men. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:757.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Johnson ES, Cardarelli K, Jadhav S. Cancer mortality in the meat and delicatessen departments of supermarkets (1950–2006). Environ Int. 2015;77:70–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Boffetta
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Francesca Donato
    • 3
  • Doriane Gouas
    • 4
  • André Nogueira da Costa
    • 5
  • Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani
    • 6
  • Pierre Hainaut
    • 7
  1. 1.Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Public Health and Pediatric SciencesUniversity of TurinTurinItaly
  4. 4.Sanofi PasteurLyonFrance
  5. 5.Experimental Medicine and Diagnostics, Global Exploratory Development, UCB BioPharma SPRLBraine-L’AlleudBelgium
  6. 6.International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health OrganizationLyonFrance
  7. 7.Institute for Advanced BiosciencesUniversity Grenoble AlpesLa TroncheFrance

Personalised recommendations