Advertisement

Occupational Cancer Burden

  • Lesley RushtonEmail author
  • Sally J. Hutchings
  • Kurt Straif
Chapter
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Exposures encountered in the general environment and at work and the potential adverse health effects arising from them are the topic of a large body of multidisciplinary research and of public concern. Investigation involves both knowledge of the source and nature of the hazard and an understanding of the relationship of the exposure to the disease. Epidemiological studies of industrial workforces have played an important role in the identification of carcinogens and the understanding of the etiology of cancer. The working environment should not be a place where there is a risk of disease or injury, yet many thousands of workers worldwide are exposed to hazardous substances at work every day. Although substances related to occupational cancer are often associated with chemical exposures, especially man-made, a wider definition is needed to encompass all patterns of working.

Keywords

Occupational cancer Burden of occupational cancer Attributable cancer burden 

References

  1. 1.
    Higginson J. Environmental carcinogenesis. Cancer. 1993;72:971–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet. 2006;367:1747–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown ML, Lipscomb J, Snyder C. The burden of illness of cancer: economic cost and quality of life. Annu Rev Public Health. 2001;22:91–113.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Danaeii G, Vander Hoorn S, Lopez AD, Murray CJL, Ezzati M. Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. Lancet. 2005;366:1784–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doll R, Peto R. The cause of cancer. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dreyer L, Andersen A, Pukkala E. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Occupation. APMIS Suppl. 1997;76:68–79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Driscoll T, Nelson DI, Steenland K, et al. The global burden of disease due to occupational carcinogens. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48:419–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Steenland K, Burnett C, Lalich N, Ward E, Hurrell J. Dying for work: the magnitude of US mortality from selected causes of death associated with occupation. Am J Ind Med. 2003;43:461–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nurminen MM, Karjalainen A. Epidemiologic estimate of the proportion of fatalities related to occupational factors in Finland. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2001;27:161–213.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vineis P, Simonato L. Proportion of lung and bladder cancers in males resulting from occupation: a systematic approach. Arch Environ Health. 1991;46:6–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gustavsson P, Jakobsson R, Nyberg F, Pershagen G, Jarup L, Scheele P. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk: a population-based case-referent study in Sweden. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152:32–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Landrigan PJ, Markowitz S. Current magnitude of occupational disease in the United States: estimates for New York. In: Landrigan PJ, Selikoff IJ, editors. Occupational health in the 1990s. Developing a platform for disease prevention. New York: Annals of New York Academy of Science; 1989. p. 27–45.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leigh JP, Markowitz SB, Fahs M, Shin C, Landrigan PJ. Occupational injury and illness in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1557–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hodgson JT, Darnton A. The quantitative risks of mesothelioma and lung cancer in relation to asbestos exposure. Ann Occup Hyg. 2000;44:565–601.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morrell S, Kerr C, Driscoll T, Taylor R, Salkeld G, Corbett S. Best estimate of the magnitude of mortality due to occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55:634–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Landrigan PL, Schechter CB, Lipton JM, Fahs MC, Schwartz J. Environmental pollutants and disease in American children: estimates of morbidity, mortality and costs for lead poisoning, asthma, cancer, and developmental disabilities. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:721–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deschamps F, Barouh M, Deslee G, Prevost A, Munck J. Estimates of work-related cancers in workers exposed to carcinogens. Occup Med. 2006;56:204–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Andersen A, Barlow L, Engeland A, Kjaerheim K, Lynge E, Pukkala E. Work-related cancer in the Nordic countries. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999;25(Suppl 2):1–116.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kjaerheim K, Martinsen JI, Lynge E, Gunnarsdottir HK, Sparen P, Tryggvadottir L, et al. Effects of occupation on risks of avoidable cancer in the Nordic countries. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:2545–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rushton L, Evans G, editors. The burden of occupational cancer in Britain. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:S1–108.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levin M. The occurrence of lung cancer in man. Acta Unio Int Contra Cancrum. 1953;9:531–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miettinen O. Proportion of disease caused or prevented by a given exposure, trait or intervention. Am J Epidemiol. 1974;99:325–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hutchings SJ, Rushton L. The burden of occupational cancer in Britain. Statistical methodology. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:S8–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lim S, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2224–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cherrie JW, Hutchings S, Gorman Ng M, Mistry R, Corden C, Lamb L, Sanchez-Jimenez A, Shafrir A, Sobey M, van Tongeren M, Rushton L. Prioritizing action on occupational carcinogens in Europe: a socioeconomic and health impact assessment. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:274–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cancer Care Ontario, Occupational Cancer Research Centre. Burden of occupational cancer in Ontario: major workplace carcinogens and prevention of exposure. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2017. www.cancercare.on.ca/occupationreport.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kauppinen T, Toikkanen J, Pedersen D, Young R, Kogevinas M, Ahrens W, et al. Carex. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union in 1990–93. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health; 1998. http://www.ttl.fi/en/chemical_safety/carex/Documents/1_description_and_summary_of_results.pdf.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Labour Force Survey. 2009. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/.
  29. 29.
    ONS. 2009. Census of employment. https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/.
  30. 30.
    Greenland S. Interval estimation by simulation as an alternative to and extension of confidence intervals. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33:1389–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Steenland K, Armstrong B. An overview of methods for calculating the burden of disease due to specific risk factors. Epidemiology. 2006;17:512–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rushton L, Hutchings SJ. The burden of occupationally-related cutaneous malignant melanoma in Britain due to solar radiation. Br J Cancer. 2017;116:536–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hutchings SJ, Rushton L. Towards risk reduction: predicting the future burden of occupational cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(9):1069–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zand M, Rushbrook C, Spencer I, Donald K, Barnes A. Costs to Britain of work-related cancer. HSE Research Report RR1074. 2016. http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr1074.pdf.
  35. 35.
    Fritschi L, Chan J, Hutchings SJ, Driscoll TR, Wong AYW, Carey RN. The future excess fraction model for calculating burden of disease. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:386.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carey R, Driscoll T, Peter S, Glass DC, Reid A, Benke G, Fritschi L. Estimated exposure to carcinogens in Australia (2011-2012). Occup Environ Med. 2014;71:55–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fritschi L, Friesen MC, Glass D, et al. OccIDEAS: retrospective occupational exposure assessment in community-based studies made easier. J Environ Public Health. 2009;2009:957023.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/957023.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rushton L, Hutchings S, Fortunato L, Young C, Evans GS, Brown T, Bevan R, Slack R, Holmes P, Bagga S, Cherrie JW, Van Tongeren M. Occupational cancer burden in Great Britain. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:S3–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hutchings SJ, Cherrie JW, Van Tongeren M, Rushton L. Intervening to reduce the future burden of occupationally-related cancers in Britain: what could work? Cancer Prev Res. 2012;5:1213–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Carey RN, Hutchings SJ, Rushton L, et al. The future excess fraction of occupational cancer among those exposed to carcinogens at work in Australia in 2012. Cancer Epidemiol. 2017;47:1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Darnton AJ, McElvenny DM, Hodgson JT. Estimating the number of asbestos-related lung cancer deaths in Great Britain from 1980 to 2000. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:29–38.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hodgson JT, McElvenny DM, Darnton AJ, Price M, Peto J. The expected burden of mesothelioma mortality in Great Britain from 2002 to 2005. Br J Cancer. 2005;93:587–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fritschi L, Driscoll T. Cancer due to occupation in Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2006;30(3):213–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Boffetta P, Autier P, Boniol M, Boyle P, Hill C, Aurengo A, et al. An estimate of cancers attributable to occupational exposures in France. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52(4):399–406.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Parkin DM. Cancers attributable to occupational exposures in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer. 2011;105:S70–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Young C, Rushton L. Occupational cancer in Britain: skin cancer. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:S71–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Trakatelli M, Ulrich C, del Marmol V, Eudvard S, Stockfleth E, Abeni D. Epidemiology of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC) in Europe: accurate and comparable data are needed for effective public health monitoring and interventions. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156(Suppl 3):1–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Houseman TS, Feldman SR, Williford PM, Fleischer AB, Goldman ND, Acostamadiedo JM, Chen GJ. Skin cancer is among the most costly of all cancers to treat for the Medicare population. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48:425–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hutchings S, Rushton L. Estimating the burden of occupational cancer: assessing bias and uncertainty. Occup Environ Med. 2017;74:604–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cherrie JW, Van Tongeren M, Semple S. Exposure to occupational carcinogens in Great Britain. Ann Occup Hyg. 2007;51(8):653–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    IOSH. Institution for Occupational Safety and Health No Time to Lose Campaign. 2016. http://www.notimetolose.org.uk/. Date last accessed Oct 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lesley Rushton
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sally J. Hutchings
    • 2
  • Kurt Straif
    • 3
  1. 1.Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthImperial College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Division of Population Health, Health Services Research and Primary CareSchool of Health Sciences, University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  3. 3.Section of Evidence Synthesis and ClassificationInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance

Personalised recommendations