Malignant Tumors of the Central Nervous System

  • Anssi AuvinenEmail author
  • Diana Withrow
  • Preetha Rajaraman
  • Hannu Haapasalo
  • Peter D. Inskip


Malignant tumors of the central nervous system in adults comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies, the largest subgroups comprising astrocytomas, ependymomas, and oligodendrogliomas. Glioblastomas are the most common tumor type, and they have dismal prognosis. Due to differences in cell type of origin, as well as pathogenesis, it is plausible that their etiology also differs between tumor types.

The etiology of malignant CNS tumors is largely unknown and no occupational risk factors have been definitively identified. High doses of ionizing radiation increase the risk, but in occupational settings the dose levels appear too small to result in discernible excesses. Several studies have assessed possible effect of extremely low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, but the results are inconsistent. Increased brain tumor risk has been reported in agricultural workers, but no specific exposure has been linked to them. Pesticides have been analyzed in several studies without showing a clear increase in risk.


Glioma Glioblastoma Radiation Electromagnetic fields Pesticides 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anssi Auvinen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Diana Withrow
    • 3
  • Preetha Rajaraman
    • 3
  • Hannu Haapasalo
    • 4
    • 5
  • Peter D. Inskip
    • 6
  1. 1.Faculty of Social SciencesTampere UniversityTampereFinland
  2. 2.STUK—Radiation and Nuclear Safety AuthorityEnvironmental SurveillanceHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Maryland and Department of Health and Human ServicesU.S. National Cancer Institute, Office of Global AffairsBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine and Health TechnologyTampere UniversityTampereFinland
  5. 5.Fimlab Laboratories, Department of PathologyTampereFinland
  6. 6.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteRockvilleUSA

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