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The Role of Biofilm in Originating, Mediating, and Proliferating Infectious Diseases

  • Amresh Kumar SinghEmail author
  • Vivek Gaur
  • Anand Kumar Maurya
Chapter

Abstract

Homogenous or heterogeneous networks of bacteria, responsible for the synthesis of biofilms, can attach themselves to lattices of natural polymers or extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). These polymers include glycopeptides, lipids, and lipopolysaccharides holding the biofilm together via a structured framework. Microbiota found within biofilms often play a part in the decomposition of organic matter, the restoration of various ecological recalcitrant pollutants, and the fixation of gas, sulfur, and metals. Aside from these helpful effects, biofilms can be extremely pathogenic. A significant number of biofilms associated with different diseases are comprised of solitary bacterial categories. The exception to this generalization are biofilms associated with catheters and voice prostheses—quite similar to oral cavity biofilms in that they are regularly comprised of diversified pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms. The etiology of such diseases are known to be related to bacterial aggregation and biofilm development on indwelling devices or tissues. Biofilms likewise encourage gene transfers among bacteria, which can favor the incorporation of several virulent strains. Another possible component mediated by biofilm cells is differential gene expression. An optimal example of species complexity is found in oral biofilms—caused by many different microorganisms. To date more than 350 bacterial species have been found to be responsible for dental plaques.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amresh Kumar Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vivek Gaur
    • 1
  • Anand Kumar Maurya
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyBaba Raghav Das Medical CollegeGorakhpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesBhopalIndia

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