Probiotics to Counteract Biofilm-Associated Infections

  • Suchitra Kumari Panigrahy
  • Awanish KumarEmail author


Eradication of pathogenic microorganisms without disturbing useful microenvironment is the primary goal in the treatment of biofilm-based infections. Although conventional treatment delivering antibody or or antibody-like molecules suppress the infection but fails to accomplish complete removal of infection. Novel treatments using probiotics proved to be more beneficial in the disruption of biofilm-related infections and become an emerging field of investigation. This novel treatment is still in preliminary stage and further research should be focused on viability, functionality and efficacy of the probiotic strains. To know the complete mechanism through which it exerts its effect, detailed molecular level study is also needed. Further studies on probiotics will fill the gaps in the current information and prove its potential in removing biofilm-associated infections.


Microbes Biofilm Infection Probiotics Therapy 


  1. Abdelhamid AG, Esaam A, Hazaa MM (2018) Cell free preparations of probiotics exerted antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against multidrug resistant E. coli. Saudi Pharm J 26:603–607CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Anukam K, Reid G (2007) Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum with probiotic potentials isolated from the vagina of healthy Nigerian women. Res J Microbiol 2:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asahara T, Nomoto K, Watanuki M et al (2001) Antimicrobial activity of intraurethrally administered probiotic Lactobacillus casei in a murine model of Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Ann Epidemiol Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:1751–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashwin D, Ke V, Taranath M, Ramagoni NK, Nara A, Sarpangala M (2015) Effect of probiotic containing ice-cream on salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) levels in children of 6–12 years of age: a randomized controlled double blind study with six-months follow up. J Clin Diagn Res 9:Z606–Z609Google Scholar
  5. Bandara HMHN, Matsubara VH, Samaranayake LP (2017) Future therapies targeted towards eliminating Candida biofilms and associated infections. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 15:299–318CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrett JS, Canale KEK, Gearry RB, Irving PM, Gibson PR (2008) Probiotic effects on intestinal fermentation patterns in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 14:5020–5024CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben Taheur F, Kouidhi B, Fdhila K, Elabed H, Ben Slama R, Mahdouani K, Bakhrouf A, Chaieb K (2016) Anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity of probiotic bacteria against oral pathogens. Microb Pathog 97:213–220CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bizzini B, Pizzo G, Scapagnini G (2012) Probiotics and oral health. Curr Pharm Des 18:5522–5531CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonifait L, Chandad F, Grenier D (2009) Probiotics for oral health: myth or reality? JCDA 75:585–590PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowe WP, Filip JC, DiRienzo JM et al (2006) Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes by bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Streptococcus salivarius. J Drugs Dermatol 5:868–870PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bruce AW, Reid G (1988) Intravaginal instillation of lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. Can J Microbiol 34:339–343CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Caglar E, Cildir SK, Ergeneli S, Sandalli N, Twetman S (2006) Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli levels after ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 by straws or tablets. Acta Odontol Scand 64:314–318CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaucheyras-Durand F, Walker ND, Bach A (2008) Effects of active dry yeasts on the rumen microbial ecosystem: past, present and future. Anim Feed Sci Technol 145:5–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chew SY, Cheah YK, Seow HF, Sandai D, Than LTL (2015) In vitro modulation of probiotic bacteria on the biofilm of Candida glabrata. Anaerobe 34:132–138CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Tokas T, Athanasiou S (2006) Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Drugs 66:1253–1261CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. García-Almendárez BE, Cann IKO, Martin SE, Guerrero-Legarreta I, Regalado C (2008) Effect of Lactococcus lactis UQ2 and its bacteriocin on Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. Food Control 19:670–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gawronska A, Dziechciarz P, Horvath A, Szajewska H (2007) A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG for abdominal pain disorders in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 25:177–184CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Gomez NC, Ramiro JMP, Quecan BXV, de Melo Franco BDG (2016) Use of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) biofilms for the control of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms formation. Front Microbiol 7:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guerrieri E, de Niederhausern S, Messi P, Sabia C, Iseppi R, Anacarso I, Bondi M (2009) Use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) biofilms for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in a small-scale model. Food Control 20:861–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hasslof P, Hedberg M, Twetman S, Stecksén-Blicks C (2010) Growth inhibition of oral Mutans Streptococci and Candida by commercial probiotic Lactobacilli—an in vitro study. BMC Oral Health 10:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hatakka K, Ahola AJ, Yli-Knuuttila H et al (2007) Probiotics reduce the prevalence of oral Candida in the elderly—a randomized controlled trial. J Dent Res 86:125–130CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu H, Merenstein DJ, Wang C et al (2013) Impact of eating probiotic yogurt on colonization by Candida species of the oral and vaginal mucosa in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Mycopathologia 176:175–181CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Huang H, Song L, Zhao W (2014) Effects of probiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in adult women: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Arch Gynecol Obstet 289:1225–1234CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Hunter JO, Lee AJ, King TS, Barratt MEJ, Linggood MA, Blades JA (1996) Enterococcus faecium strain PR88: an effective probiotic. Gut 38:A62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ibarreche PM, Castellano P, Vignolo G (2014) Evaluation of anti-Listeria meat borne Lactobacillus for biofilm formation on selected abiotic surfaces. Meat Sci 96:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Imaoka A, Shima T, Kato K, Mizuno S, Uehara T, Matsumoto S, Setoyama H, Hara T, Umesaki Y (2008) Anti-inflammatory activity of probiotic Bifidobacterium: enhancement of IL-10 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ulcerative colitis patients and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in HT-29 cells. World J Gastroenterol 14:2511–2516CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Ishikawa HAY, Nakanishi M, Oh-Hasi Y, Koga Y (2003) Suppression of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in the saliva of humans by the administration of Lactobacillus salivarius TI 2711. JSP 45:105–112Google Scholar
  28. Ishikawa KH, Mayer MP, Miyazima TY et al (2015) A multispecies probiotic reduces oral Candida colonization in denture wearers. J Prosthodont 24:194–199CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Kang BS, Seo JG, Lee GS et al (2009) Antimicrobial activity of enterocins from Enterococcus faecalis SL-5 against Propionibacterium acnes, the causative agent in acne vulgaris and its therapeutic effect. J Microbiol 47:101–109CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Kang MS, Oh JS, Lee HC, Lim HS, Lee SW, Yang KH et al (2011) Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria. J Microbiol 49:193–199CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Kaur B, Balgir P, Mittu B, Chauhan A, Kumar B (2013) Purification and physicochemical characterization of anti-Gardnerella vaginalis bacteriocin HV6b produced by Lactobacillus fermentum isolate from human vaginal ecosystem. Am J Biochem Mol Biol 3:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim Y, Oh S, Kim SH (2009) Released exopolysaccharide (r-EPS) produced from probiotic bacteria reduce biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 379:324–329CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Kishk YFM, Al-Sayed HM (2007) Free-radical scavenging and antioxidative activities of some polysaccharides in emulsions. LWT Food Sci Technol 40:270–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kober M, Bowe WP (2015) The effect of probiotics on immune regulation, acne, and photoaging. Int J Womens Dermatol 1:85–89Google Scholar
  35. Kodali VP, Sen R (2008) Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of an exopolysaccharide from a probiotic bacterium. Biotechnol J 3:245–251CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Kojima Y, Ohshima T, Seneviratne CJ, Maeda N (2016) Combining prebiotics and probiotics to develop novel synbiotics that suppress oral pathogens. J Oral Biosci 58:27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kovachev SM, Vatcheva-Dobrevska RS (2015) Local probiotic therapy for vaginal Candida albicans infections. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 7:38–44CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Kraft-Bodi E, Jorgensen MR, Keller MK et al (2015) Effect of probiotic bacteria on oral Candida in frail elderly. J Dent Res 94:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kramer MF, Heath MD (2014) Probiotics in the treatment of chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy 2014:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Krzysciak W, Koscielniak D, Papiez M, Vyhouskaya P, Zagórska-Swiezy K, Kołodziej I, Bystrowska B, Jurczak A (2017) Effect of a Lactobacillus salivarius probiotic on a double-species Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans caries biofilm. Nutrients 9:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee S, Kim Y (2014) A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries. Arch Microbiol 196:601–609CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Li D, Li Q, Liu C et al (2014) Efficacy and safety of probiotics in the treatment of Candida associated stomatitis. Mycoses 57:141–146CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Lin T, Lin C, Pan T (2017) The implication of probiotics in the prevention of dental caries. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:577–586CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Lodi CS, Manarelli MM, Sassaki KT, Fraiz FC, Delbem ACB, Martinhon CCR (2010) Evaluation of fermented milk containing probiotic on dental enamel and biofilm: in situ study. Arch Oral Biol 55:29–33CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Mahasneh SA, Mahasneh AM (2017) Probiotics: a promising role in dental health. Dent J 26:1–10Google Scholar
  46. Manzoni P, Mostert M, Leonessa ML et al (2006) Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus prevents enteric colonization by Candida species in preterm neonates: a randomized study. Clin Infect Dis 42:1735–1742CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Martinez RC, Franceschini SA, Patta MC et al (2009) Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14. Lett Appl Microbiol 48:269–274CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Matsubara VH, Silva EG, Paula CR et al (2012) Treatment with probiotics in experimental oral colonization by Candida albicans in murine model (DBA/2). Oral Dis 18:260–264CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. McMillan A, Dell M, Zellar M, Cribby S, Martz S (2011) Disruption of urogenital biofilms by lactobacilli. Colloids Surf B 86:58–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mendonca FH, Santos SS et al (2012) Effects of probiotic bacteria on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity of elderly. Braz Dent J 23:534–538CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Montalto M, Vastola M, Marigo L, Covino M, Graziosetto R, Curigliano V, Santoro L, Cuoco L, Manna R, Gasbarrini G (2004) Probiotic treatment increases salivary counts of lactobacilli: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Digestion 69:53–56CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Mottin VHM, Suyenaga ES (2018) An approach on the potential use of probiotics in the treatment of skin conditions: acne and atopic dermatitis. Int J Dermatol 57:1425–1432CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Muizzuddin N, Maher W, Sullivan M et al (2012) Physiologic effect of a probiotic on the skin. J Cosmet Sci 63:385–395PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Nase L, Hatakkab K, Savilahti E, Saxelin M, Pönkäe A, Poussaf T et al (2001) Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children. Caries Res 35:412–420CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Nieminen MT, Novak-Frazer L, Rautemaa W (2014) A novel antifungal is active against Candida albicans biofilms and inhibits mutagenic acetaldehyde production in vitro. PLoS ONE 9:e101859CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Ouwehand AC, Nermes M, Collado MC, Rautonen N, Salminen S, Isolauri E (2009) Specific probiotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season. World J Gastroenterol 15:3261–3268CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Reid G (2017) Probiotic use in an infectious disease setting. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 15:449–455CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Reid G, Chan RC, Bruce AW et al (1985) Prevention of urinary tract infection in rats with an indigenous Lactobacillus casei strain. Infect Immun 49:320–324PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Reid G, Bruce AW, Fraser N, Heinemann C, Owen J, Henning B (2001) Oral probiotics can resolve urogenital infections. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 30:49–52CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Romeo MG, Romeo DM, Trovato L et al (2011) Role of probiotics in the prevention of the enteric colonization by Candida in preterm newborns: incidence of late-onset sepsis and neurological outcome. J Perinatol 31:63–69CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Roy A, Chaudhuri J, Sarkar D et al (2014) Role of enteric supplementation of probiotics on late-onset sepsis by Candida species in preterm low birth weight neonates: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Am J Med Sci 6:50–57CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Ruiz-Martinez RC, Bedani R, Saad SM (2015) Scientific evidence for probiotics and prebiotics: an update for current prospectives and future challenges. Br J Nutr 114:1993–2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Saxami G, Karapetsas A, Lamprianidou E et al (2016) Two potential probiotic lactobacillus strains isolated from olive microbiota exhibit adhesion and anti-proliferative effects in cancer cell lines. J Funct Foods 24:461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Servin AL (2004) Antagonistic activities of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria against microbial pathogens. FEMS Microbiol Rev 28:405–440CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Sikorska H, Smoragiewicz W (2013) Role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents 42:475–481CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Sobel JD (2000) Bacterial vaginosis. Annu Rev Med 51:349–356CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Sorokulova IB, Pinchuk IV, Denayrolles M et al (2008) The safety of two Bacillus probiotic strains for human use. Dig Dis Sci 53:954–963CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Spinler JK, Taweechotipatr M, Rognerud CL et al (2008) Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri demonstrate antimicrobial activities targeting diverse enteric bacterial pathogens. Anaerobe 14:166–171CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Tan Y, Leonhard M, Moser D et al (2018) Inhibitory effect of probiotic lactobacilli supernatants on single and mixed non-albicans Candida species biofilm. Arch Oral Biol 85:40–45CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Thirabunyanon M, Boonprasom P, Niamsup P (2009) Probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented dairy milks on anti-proliferation of colon cancer cells. Biotechnol Lett 31:571–576CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Twetman L, Larsen U, Fiehn NE, Stecksén-Blicks C, Twetman S (2009) Coaggregation between probiotic bacteria and caries-associated strains: an in vitro study. Acta Odontol Scand 67:284–288CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Valdez JC, Pera MC, Rachid M, Santana M, Perdigo G (2005) Interference of Lactobacillus plantarum with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in infected burns: the potential use of probiotics in wound treatment. Clin Microbiol Infect 11:472–479CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Van Baarlen P, Troost F, Van Der Meer C, Hooiveld G, Boekschoten M, Brummer R et al (2010) Human mucosal in vivo transcriptome responses to three Lactobacilli indicate how probiotics may modulate human cellular pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4562–4569CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Verna EC, Lucak S (2010) Use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders: what to recommend? Ther Adv Gastroenterol 3:307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vicariotto F, Del Piano M, Mogna L et al (2012) Effectiveness of the association of 2 probiotic strains formulated in a slow release vaginal product, in women affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis: a pilot study. J Clin Gastroenterol 46:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wasfi R, Abd El-Rahman OA, Zafer MM, Ashour HM (2018) Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. inhibit growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans. J Cell Mol Med 22:1972–1983CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. West NP, Horn PL, Pyne DB et al (2014) Probiotic supplementation for respiratory and gastrointestinal illness symptoms in healthy physically active individuals. Clin Nutr 33:581–587CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Winkelströter LK, Gomes BC, Thomaz MRS et al (2011) Lactobacillus sakei 1 and its bacteriocin influence adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surface. Food Control 22:1404–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Woo J, Ahn J (2013) Probiotic-mediated competition, exclusion, and displacement in biofilm formation by food-borne pathogens. Lett Appl Microbiol 4:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhang B, An J, Shimada T, Liu S, Maeyama K (2012) Oral administration of Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 suppresses Th17 cell development and attenuates allergic airway responses in Mice. Int J Mol Med 24:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhao T, Podtburg TC, Zhao P et al (2013) Reduction by competitive bacteria of Listeria monocytogenes in biofilms and Listeria bacteria in floor drains in a ready-to-eat poultry processing plant. J Food Prot 74:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyGuru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University)BilaspurIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyNational Institute of Technology (NIT)RaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations