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Targeting Biofilms in Translational Research

  • Nicholas N. Ashton
  • Dustin L. Williams
Chapter

Abstract

Biofilms underpin the disease etiology of nearly all opportunistic bacterial infections especially when integumentary barriers are surgically breached and foreign materials remain implanted. Endogenous spread from the patient’s own microbial flora is the likely source of most surgical site infections. Biomaterials potentiate infection by providing a substrate for biofilm formation. The biofilm protects these pathogens from both host immunity and clinical interventions in a variety of ways. Biofilm-forming bacteria excrete sticky exopolysaccharides to form cohesive communal aggregates and adhesive attachments to foreign surfaces like devitalized tissues and implanted biomaterials; this strategy deranges phagocytic clearance by host immune cells. Quiescent phenotypic variants in the biofilm cells are tolerant of antibiotic concentrations many orders of magnitude greater than would otherwise kill planktonic phenotypes, concentrations greatly exceeding toxic thresholds bounding safe systemic antibiotic concentrations. Biofilms are, thus, a nidus for infection as tolerant cells can outlast clinical antibiotic courses to subsequently reseed infection. Much emphasis has been placed on preventing biofilm infections from occurring as clinical strategies for eradicating established biofilm infections frequently fail. Biofilm infections usually require extensive surgical intervention to remove implanted biomaterials and debride affected tissues. These procedures are costly and usually accompanied by high patient mortality and morbidity. There is a pressing need for strategies that specifically target the biofilm because clinical measures to prevent infection still fail in this antibiotic era at great financial and physical expense.

Keywords

Targeting biofilms Translational research Initial inocula Antibiotic Tolerance Infection 

Notes

Disclaimer

Author DLW has financial interest in Curza Global, LLC.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas N. Ashton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dustin L. Williams
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.George E. Wahlen Department of Veterans AffairsSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of PathologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  5. 5.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

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