Advertisement

Characteristics of Visual Electrophysiology in Inflammatory Disorders

  • Alessandro Iannaccone
  • Alfonso Senatore
  • Wajiha Jurdi Kheir
  • Donnell Creel
  • Minzhong YuEmail author
Chapter
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the application of electroretinogram, electrooculogram, and/or visual evoked potential in patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, birdshot chorioretinopathy, autoimmune retinopathy, and neuroretinopathy.

Keywords

Electroretinogram Electrooculogram Visual evoked potential Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) Birdshot chorioretinopathy Autoimmune retinopathy Neuroretinopathy 

References

  1. 1.
    Gass JD. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Donders Lecture: The Netherlands Ophthalmological Society, Maastricht, Holland, June 19, 1992. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1993;13(2):79–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boudreault KA, et al. Quantitative autofluorescence intensities in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy vs healthy eyes. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135(12):1330–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang Q, et al. Fundus autofluorescence imaging in the assessment of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Ophthalmologica. 2017;237(3):153–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mrejen S, et al. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: a classification based on multimodal imaging. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132(9):1089–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fujiwara T, et al. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomographic findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Retina. 2010;30(8):1206–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takai Y, et al. Morphological study of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) by multiplanar optical coherence tomography. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87(4):408–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jacobson SG, et al. Pattern of retinal dysfunction in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(8):1187–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Francis PJ, et al. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: towards a set of diagnostic criteria. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(1):70–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li D, Kishi S. Loss of photoreceptor outer segment in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125(9):1194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mkrtchyan M, et al. Outer retinal structure in patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153(4):757–68, 768 e1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nakao S, et al. Spontaneous remission of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: follow-up using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015;253(6):839–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Makino S, Tampo H. Changes in optical coherence tomography findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Case Rep Ophthalmol. 2013;4(3):99–104.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tagami M, et al. Autologous antibodies to outer retina in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2014;58(6):462–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jampol LM, Wiredu A. MEWDS, MFC, PIC, AMN, AIBSE, and AZOOR: one disease or many? Retina. 1995;15(5):373–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gass JD. The acute zonal outer retinopathies. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130(5):655–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gass JD. Are acute zonal occult outer retinopathy and the white spot syndromes (AZOOR complex) specific autoimmune diseases? Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135(3):380–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Heckenlively JR, Ferreyra HA. Autoimmune retinopathy: a review and summary. Semin Immunopathol. 2008;30(2):127–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    He SX, et al. Auto antibodies against retinal pigment epithelium in patients with atypical retinopathies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(5):E-Abstract 3771.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Qian CX, et al. Prevalence of Antiretinal antibodies in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: a comprehensive review of 25 cases. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;176:210–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gass JD, Agarwal A, Scott IU. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: a long-term follow-up study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134(3):329–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abo-Shasha R, et al. Is acute zonal occult outer retinopathy an autoimmune condition? A case report and literature review. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46(6):662–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Priem HA, et al. Electrophysiologic studies in birdshot chorioretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;106:430–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hirose T, et al. Retinal function in birdshot retinochoroidopathy. Acta Ophthalmol. 1991;69:327–37.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Menezo V, Taylor SR. Birdshot uveitis: current and emerging treatment options. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014;8:73–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holak HM, Szymaniec S, Holak SA. The pathogenesis of birdshot chorioretinopathy. Surv Ophthalmol. 2006;51(4):446–7; author reply 447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lei B, et al. Human melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR) antibodies alter the retinal ON-response of the monkey ERG in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:262–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shiraga S, Adamus G. Mechanism of CAR syndrome: anti-recoverin antibodies are the inducers of retinal cell apoptotic death via the caspase 9- and caspase 3-dependent pathway. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;132(1–2):72–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chan JW. Paraneoplastic retinopathies and optic neuropathies. Surv Ophthalmol. 2003;48(1):12–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Adamus G, Ren G, Weleber RG. Autoantibodies against retinal proteins in paraneoplastic and autoimmune retinopathy. BMC Ophthalmol. 2004;4:5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lu Y, et al. Melanoma-associated retinopathy: a paraneoplastic autoimmune complication. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(12):1572–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Iannaccone A, et al. Basal cell carcinoma-associated retinopathy and optic neuropathy (BARN): a novel paraneoplastic entity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019;60(5):E-Abstract 2780.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barnes AC, et al. Treatment of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy with intravitreal steroids. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49(7):504–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kuo YC, Chen N, Tsai RK. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy (AZOOR): a case report of vision improvement after intravitreal injection of Ozurdex. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17(1):236.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen SN, Yang CH, Yang CM. Systemic corticosteroids therapy in the management of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. J Ophthalmol. 2015;2015:793026.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jampol LM, et al. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. I. Clinical findings. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(5):671–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raven ML, et al. Multi-modal imaging and anatomic classification of the white dot syndromes. Int J Retina Vitreous. 2017;3:12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    dell'Omo R, Pavesio CE. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2012;52(4):221–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ryan PT. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome: a review and case report. Clin Exp Optom. 2010;93(5):324–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Matsumoto Y, Haen SP, Spaide RF. The white dot syndromes. Compr Ophthalmol Updat. 2007;8(4):179–200; discussion 203–4.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Quillen DA, et al. The white dot syndromes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137(3):538–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Feigl B, Haas A, El-Shabrawi Y. Multifocal ERG in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;240(8):615–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chen D, Martidis A, Baumal CR. Transient multifocal electroretinogram dysfunction in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2002;33(3):246–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cheng JY, et al. The outer and inner retinal function in patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;37(5):478–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yamamoto S, et al. S-cone electroretinograms in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Doc Ophthalmol. 2003;106(2):117–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gass JD. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1968;80(2):177–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Roberts TV, Mitchell P. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy: a long-term study. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1997;25(4):277–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vianna R, et al. Natural history and visual outcome in patients with APMPPE. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 1993;248:73–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    de Laey JJ. [Placoid epitheliopathy and serpiginous choroidopathy]. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 1989;230:105–22.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xerri O, et al. Untreated acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE): a case series. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18(1):76.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Brydak-Godowska J, et al. Ocular complications in influenza virus infection. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2019;27(4):545–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mangeon M, et al. Multimodal evaluation of patients with acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy and serpiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2018;26(8):1212–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goen TM, Terry JE. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. J Am Optom Assoc. 1987;58(2):112–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cozubas R, et al. Similarities and differences between three different types of white dot syndrome and the therapeutic possibilities. Rom J Ophthalmol. 2018;62(3):183–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thomson SP, Roxburgh ST. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy associated with adenovirus infection. Eye (Lond). 2003;17(4):542–4.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Azar P Jr, et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy associated with an adenovirus type 5 infection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1975;80(6):1003–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Daniele S, et al. Progression of choroidal atrophy in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Ophthalmologica. 1998;212(1):66–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Aoyagi R, et al. Multifocal electroretinographic evaluation of macular function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Doc Ophthalmol. 2013;126(3):253–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Leung E, et al. Birdshot retinochoroidopathy. In: Karth PA, O’Keefe GD, editors. eyewiki.aao.org. American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2019.
  59. 59.
    Franceschetti A, Babel J. La chorioretinite en taches de bougie, manifestation de la maladie de Besnier-Boeck. Ophthalmologica. 1949;118(4–5):701–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gasch AT, Smith JA, Whitcup SM. Birdshot retinochoroidopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83(2):241–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rothova A, et al. Birdshot chorioretinopathy: long-term manifestations and visual prognosis. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(5):954–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kiss S, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy treated with corticosteroid-sparing systemic immunomodulatory therapy. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(6):1066–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Levinson RD, et al. Research criteria for the diagnosis of birdshot chorioretinopathy: results of an international consensus conference. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141(1):185–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thorne JE, et al. Loss of visual field among patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145(1):23–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Leclercq M, et al. Tocilizumab for the treatment of birdshot uveitis that failed interferon alpha and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy: two cases report and literature review. Clin Rheumatol. 2018;37(3):849–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Steeples LR, et al. Adalimumab in refractory cystoid macular edema associated with birdshot chorioretinopathy. Int Ophthalmol. 2018;38(3):1357–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lopalco G, et al. IL-6 blockade in the management of non-infectious uveitis. Clin Rheumatol. 2017;36(7):1459–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mesquida M, et al. Twenty-four month follow-up of tocilizumab therapy for refractory uveitis-related macular edema. Retina. 2018;38(7):1361–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Calvo-Rio V, et al. Efficacy of anti-IL6-receptor tocilizumab in refractory cystoid macular edema of birdshot retinochoroidopathy report of two cases and literature review. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2017;25(5):604–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Papo M, et al. Tocilizumab in severe and refractory non-infectious uveitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2014;32(4 Suppl 84):S75–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mesquida M, et al. Long-term effects of tocilizumab therapy for refractory uveitis-related macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(12):2380–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Adan A, et al. Tocilizumab treatment for refractory uveitis-related cystoid macular edema. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;251(11):2627–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Artornsombudh P, et al. Infliximab treatment of patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(3):588–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sobrin L, et al. Daclizumab for treatment of birdshot chorioretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(2):186–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Magrys A, et al. The role of anti-alpha-enolase autoantibodies in pathogenicity of autoimmune-mediated retinopathy. J Clin Immunol. 2007;27(2):181–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Weleber RG, et al. Clinical and electrophysiologic characterization of paraneoplastic and autoimmune retinopathies associated with antienolase antibodies. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139(5):780–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ren G, Adamus G. Cellular targets of anti-alpha-enolase autoantibodies of patients with autoimmune retinopathy. J Autoimmun. 2004;23(2):161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Adamus G. Autoantibody-induced apoptosis as a possible mechanism of autoimmune retinopathy. Autoimmun Rev. 2003;2(2):63–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Adamus G. Antirecoverin antibodies and autoimmune retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(11):1577–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mizener JB, et al. Autoimmune retinopathy in the absence of cancer. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123(5):607–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Heckenlively JR, et al. Autoimmune retinopathy: patients with antirecoverin immunoreactivity and panretinal degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(11):1525–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Adamus G, Karren L. Autoimmunity against carbonic anhydrase II affects retinal cell functions in autoimmune retinopathy. J Autoimmun. 2009;32(2):133–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Adamus G, Yang S, Weleber RG. Unique epitopes for carbonic anhydrase II autoantibodies related to autoimmune retinopathy and cancer-associated retinopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2016;147:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Adamus G, et al. Diversity in autoimmunity against retinal, neuronal, and axonal antigens in acquired neuro-retinopathy. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2011;1(3):111–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Radhakrishnan SS, et al. Patterns of visual function loss in autoimmune neuro-retinopathy (AINR): psychophysical and electrophysiological findings [ARVO abstract]. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(5):E-abstract 3547.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Iyer SS, et al. Presentation of autoimmune neuro-retinopathy (AINR) patients with anti-carbonic anhydrase II auto-antibodies [ARVO Abstract]. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(6):E-abstract 2924.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Carboni G, et al. Bilateral paraneoplastic optic neuropathy and unilateral retinal compromise in association with prostate cancer: a differential diagnostic challenge in a patient with unexplained visual loss. Doc Ophthalmol. 2012;125:63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Epstein RS, et al. Clinical, functional, and imaging characteristics of cancer-associated retinopathy and optic neuropathy. In: American Academy of Ophthalmology meeting. 2014: Chicago, 18–22 Oct 2014.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Grange L, et al. Autoimmune retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157(2):266–272 e1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Comlekoglu DU, Thompson IA, Sen HN. Autoimmune retinopathy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2013;24(6):598–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ferreyra HA, et al. Management of autoimmune retinopathies with immunosuppression. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(4):390–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Turaka K, et al. Carcinoma-associated retinopathy in a young teenager with immature teratoma of the ovary. J AAPOS. 2014;18(4):396–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Suhler EB, et al. Presumed teratoma-associated paraneoplastic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(1):133–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jacobson SG, et al. Interocular asymmetry of visual function in heterozygotes of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Exp Eye Res. 1989;48:679–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ko AC, et al. Anti-gamma-enolase autoimmune retinopathy manifesting in early childhood. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128(12):1590–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Polans AS, et al. Recoverin, a photoreceptor-specific calcium-binding protein, is expressed by the tumor of a patient with cancer-associated retinopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92(20):9176–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pratesi F, et al. Autoantibodies specific for alpha-enolase in systemic autoimmune disorders. J Rheumatol. 2000;27(1):109–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Iannaccone A, et al. Autoimmunity in age-related macular degeneration: a possible role player in disease development and progression. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;723:11–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Iannaccone A, et al. Circulating autoantibodies in age-related macular degeneration recognize human macular tissue antigens implicated in autophagy, immunomodulation, and protection from oxidative stress and apoptosis. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0145323.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Iannaccone A, et al. Retinal pigment epithelium and microglia express the CD5 antigen-like protein, a novel autoantigen in age-related macular degeneration. Exp Eye Res. 2017;155:64–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chang PY, Yang CH, Yang CM. Cancer-associated retinopathy in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: case report and literature review. Retina. 2005;25(8):1093–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Andreasson S, Ponjavic V, Ehinger B. Full-field electroretinogram in a patient with cutaneous melanoma-associated retinopathy. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1993;71:487–90.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Milam AH, et al. Autoantibodies against retinal bipolar cells in cutaneous melanoma-associated retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1993;34:91–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lei B, et al. Human melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR) antibodies alter the retinal ON-response of the monkey ERG in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41(1):262–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Potter MJ, et al. Autoantibodies to transducin in a patient with melanoma-associated retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134(1):128–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jacobson DM, Adamus G. Retinal anti-bipolar cell antibodies in a patient with paraneoplastic retinopathy and colon carcinoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131(6):806–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Birg A, et al. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in patients with autoimmune neuro-retinopathy (AINR). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(5):–E-Abstract 3690.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Iannaccone A, et al. Optic nerve/retinal ganglion cell involvement in autoimmune retinopathies resulting in autoimmune neuroretinopathy. In: American Academy of Ophthalmology meeting. Chicago; 2014. p. PO547.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Frishman L, et al. ISCEV extended protocol for the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the full-field electroretinogram. Doc Ophthalmol. 2018;136(3):207–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Majander A, et al. The pattern of retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Mitochondrion. 2017;36:138–49.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Karanjia R, et al. The photopic negative response: an objective measure of retinal ganglion cell function in patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58(6):BIO300–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Katagiri S, et al. Retinal structure and function in eyes with optic nerve hypoplasia. Sci Rep. 2017;7:42480.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    You Y, et al. Optic neuropathies: characteristic features and mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell loss. Rev Neurosci. 2013;24(3):301–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Machida S. Clinical applications of the photopic negative response to optic nerve and retinal diseases. J Ophthalmol. 2012;2012:397178.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Boudreault K, et al. Efficacy of rituximab in non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2017;12(1):129.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Forooghian F, MacDonald IM. Rituximab for the treatment of autoimmune retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:xv–xvi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Davoudi S, et al. Outcomes in autoimmune retinopathy patients treated with rituximab. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:124–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Maleki A, et al. Rituximab as a monotherapy or in combination therapy for the treatment of non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy. Clin Ophthalmol. 2017;11:377–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Uludag G, et al. Electroretinographic improvement after rituximab therapy in a patient with autoimmune retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2016;2:4–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fox A, et al. Rituximab treatment for nonparaneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol. 2015;50(6):e101–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Finn AP, Keenan RT, Jaffe GJ. Reconstitution of the ellipsoid zone with tocilizumab in autoimmune retinopathy. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2018.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Grewal DS, Jaffe GJ, Keenan RT. Sarilumab for recalcitrant cystoid macular edema in non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2019.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Jaffe GJ, et al. Adalimumab in patients with active noninfectious uveitis. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(10):932–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Iannaccone
    • 1
  • Alfonso Senatore
    • 1
  • Wajiha Jurdi Kheir
    • 1
  • Donnell Creel
    • 2
  • Minzhong Yu
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Retinal Degenerations and Ophthalmic Genetic Diseases, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke Eye Center, Department of OphthalmologyDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Moran Eye CenterUniversity of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity Hospitals Eye InstituteClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations