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Soft Power pp 85-225 | Cite as

A Taxonomy of Soft Power: Introducing a New Conceptual Paradigm

  • Hendrik W. Ohnesorge
Chapter
Part of the Global Power Shift book series (GLOBAL)

Abstract

In this chapter, the author introduces a sophisticated taxonomy of soft power by building on existing literature but at the same time substantially expanding and elaborating on the concept by integrating thus far neglected components. By dividing the overarching concept of soft power into four qualitatively different aspects, or subunits, the taxonomy provides a substantial conceptual clarification and elaboration of our understanding of soft power.

With this in mind, the author for each of the subunits in turn (1) outlines the general rationale behind it, (2) explains its position and function in the overall taxonomy, (3) illustrates it by drawing on a range of historical as well as model examples, and finally (4) deduces and discusses respective indicators allowing for precise operationalization. Proceeding especially from the works of Joseph S. Nye, Jr., the author subscribes to the importance of culture, values, and policies as crucial soft power resources. At the same time, he identifies personalities as a fourth—and highly influential—resource. Subsequently, public diplomacy is discussed as a pivotal instrument of soft power, while—concomitant to the newly introduced resource of personalities—the instrument of personal diplomacy is developed and integrated into the taxonomy. Finally, on the receiving end of the soft power equation, the subunits of reception and outcomes are presented and discussed. In a final step, an excursus to the soft power on the Roman Empire rejoins the four subunits and illustrates the working of the taxonomy as a whole with recourse to a select historical example.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hendrik W. Ohnesorge
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Global StudiesUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

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