Palliative Approaches in Esophageal Cancer

  • Baiwen Li
  • Shanshan Shen
  • Cicily T. Vachaparambil
  • Vladimir Lamm
  • Qunye Guan
  • Jie Tao
  • Hui Luo
  • Huimin Chen
  • Qiang CaiEmail author


Esophageal cancer is a lethal disease and its incidence is still increasing. Despite significant progress in diagnosis and therapy in recent years, esophageal cancer remains a devastating disease in the world. Early diagnosis is difficult, since dysphagia, the common presentation symptom, occurs in late stage of the disease. When diagnosed, many patients miss the opportunity for surgical therapy. Also, patients with esophageal cancer are usually elder with co-mobility which make them not candidates for very invasive esophagectomy. Therefore, palliative endoscopic therapy is used very frequently for patients with esophageal cancer. Among the current endoscopic modalities, some, such as cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, etc., can be very effective in controlling the progress of the disease. Some, such as dilation and esophageal stent placement, are really palliative only. The common methods, including cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, and stent placement, are introduced in detail in this chapter.


Esophageal cancer Palliative therapy Cryotherapy RFA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baiwen Li
    • 1
  • Shanshan Shen
    • 2
  • Cicily T. Vachaparambil
    • 3
  • Vladimir Lamm
    • 3
  • Qunye Guan
    • 4
  • Jie Tao
    • 5
  • Hui Luo
    • 1
  • Huimin Chen
    • 1
  • Qiang Cai
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai General HospitalShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Gastroenterology, Nanjing Drum TOwer HospitalNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of MedicineEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Department of GastroenterologyWeihai Municipal HospitalWeihaiChina
  5. 5.Department of Hepatobiliary SurgeryThe First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina

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