Changes in the Large-Scale Circulations Over North-West India

  • Ramesh Kumar YadavEmail author


The northwestern part of India occupies a vast landmass which roughly lies in the area bounded by 70.5°E–80.5°E longitudes and 27°N–37°N latitudes of South Asia. This is an important region of food-grain production in the country. The summer season (June to September) contributes about 75% of annual precipitation and the winter season from December to March 15–20%. These precipitations are very important for the crops and maintaining the western Himalayas Glaciers. The interannual variability of summer and winter precipitation are examined using observed and reanalysis datasets for the period of 1948–2015. The analysis shows changes in teleconnection pattern around the late-1970s, when the major ‘climate shift’ was observed in the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The summer precipitation teleconnection change is related to the change in the shape and position of the equatorial Pacific warming. And, the winter precipitation is mostly influenced by the two major weather phenomenon Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO) and El-Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which exert strong control on the weather/climate of the Northern Hemisphere particularly in the boreal winter. The AO/NAO phenomenon were more influencing in the earlier decades, while the ENSO in the recent decades.


North-west India Indian summer monsoon Western disturbances Climate shift ENSO 


  1. Agnihotri CL, Singh MS (1982) Satellite study of western disturbances. Mausam 33:249–254Google Scholar
  2. Ambrizzi T, Hoskins BJ, Hsu H-H (1995) Rossby wave propagation and teleconnection patterns in the austral winter. J Atmos Sci 52:3661–3672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhaskara Rao NS, Morey PE (1971) Cloud systems associated with western disturbances—a preliminary study. Indian J Meteorol Geophys 22:413–420Google Scholar
  4. Branstator G (2002) Circumglobal teleconnections, the jet stream waveguide, and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J Clim 15:1893–1910.<1893:CTTJSW>2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dairaku K, Emori S (2006) Dynamic and thermodynamic influences on intensified daily rainfall during Asian summer monsoon under doubled atmospheric CO2 conditions. Geophys Res Lett 33:L010704. Scholar
  6. Ding Q-H, Wang B (2005) Circumglobal teleconnection in the northern hemisphere summer. J Clim 18:3483–3505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ding Q, Wang B (2007) Intraseasonal teleconnection between the summer Eurasian wave train and the Indian monsoon. J Clim 20:3751–3767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ding Q, Wang B (2009) Predicting extreme phases of the Indian summer monsoon. J Clim 22:346–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dutta RK, Gupta MG (1967) Synoptic study of the formation and movement of western depressions, Indian J. Meteorol Geophys 18:45–50Google Scholar
  10. Enomoto T, Hoskins BJ, Matsuda Y (2003) The formation mechanism of the Bonin high in August. Q J R Meteorol Soc 129:157–178. Scholar
  11. Graham NE (1994) Decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical and North Pacific during the 1970s and 1980s: observations and model results. Clim Dyn 10:135–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Held IM, Panetta RL, Pierrehumbert RT (1985) Stationary external Rossby waves in vertical shear. J Atmos Sci 42: 865–883.<0865:SERWIV>2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoskins BJ, Ambrizzi T (1993) Rossby wave propagation on a realistic longitudinally varying flow. J Atmos Sci 50:1661–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A (1997) Rainfall variability over Southeast Asia-connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives. Int J Climatol 17:1155–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A (1999) Climatology and variability of historical Soviet snow depth data: some new perspectives in snow-Indian monsoon teleconnections. Clim Dyn 15:475–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kripalani RH, Kulkarni A, Singh SV (1997) Association of the Indian summer monsoon with northern hemisphere mid-latitude circulation. Int J Climatol 17:1055–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krishnamurti TN, Bhalme HN (1976) Oscillations of monsoon system. Part I: observational aspects. J Atmos Sci 45:1937–1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mak M-K (1975) The monsoonal mid-tropospheric cyclogenesis. J Atmos Sci 32:2246–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Miller FR, Keshavamurthy RN (1968) Structure of an Arabian Sea summer monsoon system, International Indian Ocean expedition meteorological monographs no. 1. East–West Center Press, Honolulu, 94 pGoogle Scholar
  20. Mooley DA (1957) The role of western disturbances in the production of weather over India during different seasons. Indian J Meteorol Geophys 8:253–260Google Scholar
  21. Petterssen S (1956) Weather analysis and forecasting, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 422Google Scholar
  22. Pisharoty PR, Desai BN (1956) Western disturbances and Indian weather. Indian J Meteorol Geophys 8:333–338Google Scholar
  23. Raman CRV, Maliekal JA (1985) A ‘northern oscillation’ relating northern hemispheric pressure anomalies and the Indian summer monsoon? Nature 314:430–432. Scholar
  24. Raman CRV, Rao YP (1981) Blocking highs over Asia and monsoon droughts over India. Nature 289:271–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ramaswamy C (1956) On the sub-tropical jet stream and its role in the development of largescale convection. Tellus 8:26–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ramaswamy C (1962) Breaks in the Indian summer monsoon as a phenomenon of interaction between the easterly and the subtropical westerly jet streams. Tellus 14:337–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh MS (1963) Upper air circulation associated with western disturbance. Indian J Meteorol Geophys 1:156–172Google Scholar
  28. Singh MS (1979) Westerly upper air troughs and development of western depression over India. Mausam 30(4):405–414Google Scholar
  29. Singh MS, Kumar S (1977) Study of western disturbances. Indian J Meteorol Hydrol Geophys 28(2):233–242Google Scholar
  30. Trenberth KE, Hurrell JW (1994) Decadal atmosphere–ocean variations in the Pacific. Clim Dyn 9:303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yadav RK (2009a) Changes in the large-scale features associated with the Indian summer monsoon in the recent decades. Int J Climatol 29:117–133. Scholar
  32. Yadav RK (2009b) Role of equatorial central Pacific and northwest of North Atlantic 2-metre surface temperatures in modulating Indian summer monsoon variability. Clim Dyn 32:549–563. Scholar
  33. Yadav RK (2016) On the relationship between Iran surface temperature and north-west India summer monsoon rainfall. Int J Climatol 36:4425–4438. Scholar
  34. Yadav RK (2017a) Mid-latitude Rossby wave modulation of the Indian summer monsoon. Q J R Meteorol Soc 143:2260–2271. Scholar
  35. Yadav RK (2017b) On the relationship between east equatorial Atlantic SST and ISM through Eurasian wave. Clim Dyn 48:281–295. Scholar
  36. Yadav RK, Singh BB (2017) North equatorial Indian Ocean convection and Indian summer monsoon June progression: a case study of 2013 and 2014. Pure Appl Geophys 174(2):477–489. Scholar
  37. Yadav RK, Rupa Kumar K, Rajeevan M (2009a) Increasing influence of ENSO and decreasing influence of AO/NAO in the recent decades over northwest India winter precipitation. J Geophys Res 114:D12112. Scholar
  38. Yadav RK, Rupa Kumar K, Rajeevan M (2009b) Out-of-phase relationships between convection over north–west India and warm-pool region during winter season. Int J Climatol 29:1330–1338. Scholar
  39. Yadav RK, Srinivas G, Chowdary JS (2018) Atlantic Niño modulation of the Indian summer monsoon through Asian jet. npj Clim Atmos Sci 1:23. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations