Hydrology of the Himalayas

  • Nuzhat Q. Qazi
  • Sharad K. Jain
  • Renoj J. Thayyen
  • Pravin R. Patil
  • Mritunjay K. Singh


The Himalayan Mountain chain is the third-largest deposit of ice and snow in the world, serves as an important source of freshwater for the 1.3 billion population living in the lowlands of river basins of Indus, Ganga and the Brahmaputra (IGB) covering eight countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan). Influence of Himalayan cryosphere is very significant in headwater tributaries of these river basins and also plays a significant role in the livelihood of the people through river runoff. Understanding of the timing and relative contribution of individual components of the hydrological cycle and water resources characteristics across the Himalayas is limited and is due to inadequate investigations and lack of synthesis of existing information. This chapter presents outcome of an extensive review of available knowledge and discuses knowledge gaps in the current understanding of hydrology of IGB river basins. Many factors that are considered important in managing Himalayan water resources have been identified and discussed in this chapter.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nuzhat Q. Qazi
    • 1
  • Sharad K. Jain
    • 1
  • Renoj J. Thayyen
    • 1
  • Pravin R. Patil
    • 1
  • Mritunjay K. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of HydrologyRoorkeeIndia

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