Media Education as Counter-Conduct: Analyzing Fields of Visibility and Regimes of Knowledge

  • Kiran Vinod Bhatia
  • Manisha Pathak-Shelat


In this chapter, we present a counter-conduct framework for Critical Media Literacy with an aim to encourage young people to identify the limits imposed on them through their subjectification and broaden the field of possible actions and relations. We also discuss the two most important dimensions of this framework, i.e., analyzing the fields of visibility and regimes of knowledge, and enlist a number of media education exercise to re-orient students toward their classmates who belong to a different religious community.


Counter-conduct Fields of visibility Cultural mapping Body mapping Regimes of knowledge 


  1. Amin, A. (2010). Land of strangers. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  2. Arendt, H. (1958). The human condition. London: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arendt, H. (1978). The life of mind. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  4. Bakhtin, M. (1981). Discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M. M. Bakhtin (pp. 259–422). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, W. L. (2008). Changing citizenship in the digital age. In W. L. Bennett (Ed.), Civic life online: Learning how digital media can engage youth (pp. 1–24). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  6. Braggs, S. (2007). ‘Student voice’ and governmentality: The production of enterprising subjects? Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 28(3), 343–358.Google Scholar
  7. Buckingham, D. (2003). Media education: Literacy, learning and contemporary culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. Buckingham, D., Niesyto, H., & Fisherkeller, J. (2003). Videoculture: Crossing borders with young people’s video productions. Television and New Media, 4(4), 461–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buckingham, D., & Sefton-Green, J. (2003). Gotta catch’em all: Structure, agency and pedagogy in children’s media culture. Media, Culture and Society, 25(3), 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Conroy, J. (2004). Betwixt and between: The liminal imagination, education and democracy. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  11. Davidson, A. (2011). In praise of counter-conduct. History of Human Sciences, 24(4), 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davy, C., Magalhaes, L., Mandich, A., & Galheigo, S. (2014). Aspects of the resilience and settlement of refugee youth: A narrative study using body maps. UFSCar, 22(2), 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dean, M. (1999). Governmentality: Power and rule in modern society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Devine, C. (2008). The moon, the stars, and a scar: Body mapping stories of women living with HIV/AIDS. Border Crossings, 27(2), 58–65.Google Scholar
  15. Dewey, J. (1954). The public and its problems. Athens, OH: Swallow Press.Google Scholar
  16. Donnan, H., & Wilson, T. (1999). Borders: Frontiers of identity, nation and state. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  17. Fleetwood, N. (2005). Authenticating practices: Producing realness, performing youth. In S. Maira & E. Seop (Eds.), Youthscapes: The popular, the national, the global (pp. 155–172). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  18. Foucault, M. (1982). The subject and power. Critical Inquiry, 8(4), 777–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Foucault, M. (1997). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison (A. Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  20. Foucault, M. (2007). Security, territory, population: Lectures at the Collège de France 1977–1978. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New Delhi: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  22. Freire, P. (1973). Education for critical consciousness. New York, NY: Seabury Press.Google Scholar
  23. Freire, P. (1976). Education, the practice of freedom. New York: Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative.Google Scholar
  24. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  25. Giroux, H. (2001). Public spaces, private lives: Beyond the culture of cynicism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  26. Giroux, H. A. (1992). Border crossings: Cultural workers and the politics of education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Giroux, H. A. (1994). Disturbing pleasures: Learning popular culture. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Goldfarb, B. (2002). Visual pedagogy: Media cultures in and beyond the classroom. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Held, D. (2002). The transformation of political community: Rethinking democracy in the context of globalization. In N. Dower & J. Williams (Eds.), Global citizenship: A critical introduction (pp. 92–100). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Heller, K. (1996). Power, subjectification and resistance in Foucault. SubStance, 25(1), 78–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hobbs, R. (1998). The seven great debates in the media literacy movement. Journal of Communication, 48(1), 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hobbs, R., & Jensen, A. (2009). The past, present and future of media literacy education. The Journal of Media Literacy Education, 1, 1–11.Google Scholar
  33. Hoechsmann, M., & Poyntz, S. (2012). Media literacies: A critical introduction. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  34. Hutchings, K. (2002). Feminism and global citizenship. In N. Dower & J. Williams (Eds.), Global citizenship: A critical introduction (pp. 30–40). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Jankowski, N. (2002). Creating community with media: History, theories and scientific investigations. In L. S. Lievrouw & S. M. Livingstone (Eds.), Handbook of new media: Social shaping and consequences of ICTs (pp. 34–49). Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kellner, D. (1998). Multiple literacies and critical pedagogy in a multicultural society. Educational Theory, 48(1), 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kirmani, N. (2008). Competing constructions of “Muslim-ness” in the South Delhi neighborhood of Zakir Nagar. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 28(3), 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Land, R., Rattray, J., & Vivian, P. (2014). Learning in the liminal space: A semiotic approach to threshold concepts. High Educ, 67, 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lankshear, C. (1997). Changing literacies, changing education. New York: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Lewis, J., & Jhally, S. (1998). The struggle over media literacy. Journal of Communication, 48(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lorenzini, D. (2016). From counter-conduct to critical attitude: Michel Foucault and the art of not being governed quite so much. Foucault Studies, 21, 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Luke, C. (2002). Cyber-schooling and technological change: Multiple literacies for new times. In B. Cope & M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures (pp. 69–91). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Macgregor, N. H. (2009). Mapping the body: Tracing the personal and the political dimensions of HIV/AIDs in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Anthropology & Medicine, 16(1), 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Malmvig, H. (2016). Eyes wide shut: Power and creative counter-conducts in the battle for Syria, 2011–2014. Global Society. Scholar
  45. Masterman, L. (1985). Teaching the media. London: Comedia Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  46. McLaren, P. (1995). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture: Oppositional politics in a postmodern era. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Meyer, J., & Land, R. (2005). Overcoming barriers to student understanding: Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Mill, J. S. M. (1977). On liberty. In J. M. Robson (Ed.), The collected works of John Stuart Mill (Vol. XVIII). Toronto and London: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  49. O’Brien, S., & Szeman, I. (2004). Popular culture: A user’s guide. Scarborough: Nelson.Google Scholar
  50. Orner, M. (1992). Interrupting the calls for student voice in libratory education: A feminist poststructuralist perspective. In C. Luke & J. Gore (Eds.), Feminisms and critical pedagogy (pp. 15–25). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Pathak-Shelat, M. (2014). Global civic engagement on online platforms: Women as transcultural citizens (Unpublished dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison.Google Scholar
  52. Poyntz, S. (2006). Independent media, youth agency, and the promise of media education. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(1), 154–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Poyntz, S. (2015). Conceptual futures: Thinking and the role of key concept models in media literacy education. Media Education Research Journal, 6(1), 63–79.Google Scholar
  54. Pratt, M. (1992). Arts of the contact zone. Modern Language Association, 5(8), 33–40.Google Scholar
  55. Rose, N. (1999). Powers of freedom: Reframing political thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Schwartzman, L. (2010). Transcending disciplinary boundaries: A proposed theoretical foundation for threshold concepts. In J. H. F. Meyer, R. Land, & C. Baillie (Eds.), Threshold concepts and transformational learning (pp. 21–44). Rotterdam: Sense Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sefton-Green, J. (2006). Youth, technology and media cultures. Review of Research in Education, 30, 279–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Silverstone, R. (2007). Media and morality: On the rise of the Mediapolis. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  59. Soep, E. (2006). Beyond literacy and voice in youth media education. McGill Journal of Education, 41(3), 197–213.Google Scholar
  60. Sokhi-Bulley, B. (2016). Re-reading the riots: Counter-conduct in London 2011. Global Society. Scholar
  61. Willet, R. (2008). Consumer citizens online: Structure, agency, and gender in online participation. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, identity and digital media (pp. 49–69). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiran Vinod Bhatia
    • 1
  • Manisha Pathak-Shelat
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Journalism and Mass CommunicationUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUnited States
  2. 2.MICAAhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations