Learning Continuous User and Item Representations for Neural Collaborative Filtering

  • Qinglin JiaEmail author
  • Xiao Su
  • Zhonghai Wu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11775)


Collaborative filtering (CF) is one of the most successful approach commonly used by many recommender systems. Recently, deep neural networks (DNNs) have performed very well in collaborative filtering for recommendation. Conventional DNNs based CF methods directly model the interaction between user and item features by transforming users and items into binarized sparse vectors with one-hot encoding, then map them into a low dimensional space with randomly initialized embedding layers and automatically learn the representations in training process. We argue that randomly initialized embedding layers can not capture the contextual relations of user interactions. We propose an approach that uses the optimized representations of user and item generated by doc2vec algorithm to initialize embedding layers. Items with similar contexts (i.e., their surrounding click) are mapped to vectors that are nearby in the embedding space. Our experiments on three industry datasets show significant improvements, especially in high-sparsity recommendation scenarios.


Deep learning Distributed representation Recommender systems Collaborative filtering 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Software and MicroelectronicsPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Research Center of Software EngineeringPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary StudiesPeking UniversityBeijingChina

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