A Gender Perspective of Sport-Based Entrepreneurship
Purpose: Sport-based entrepreneurship is a new theory developed to understand how sport is inherently entrepreneurial. The aim of this chapter is to develop further this theory by taking a gender approach.
Design/methodology/approach: In-depth interviews are conducted with female athletes who are entrepreneurs in order to understand the processes and context of sport-based entrepreneurship.
Findings: The findings suggest that female athletes conceptualise sport-based entrepreneurship in a different way to males, which is based on the challenges they face in becoming entrepreneurs. Moreover, there are gender imbalances in sport-based entrepreneurship that can help further develop the theory.
Research limitations/implications: As few empirical studies have been conducted on sport-based entrepreneurship, this study is amongst the first to take a gender perspective. Therefore, it further extends sport-based entrepreneurship theory and links the sport, gender and entrepreneurship literature.
Practical implications: As more female athletes become entrepreneurs, this chapter provides a way to understand the barriers they face and how policymakers and practitioners can further encourage gender equality in sport-based entrepreneurship.
Originality/value: There are limited studies on female athlete entrepreneurs so this chapter is amongst the first to take into account an interdisciplinary perspective that combines the gender and sport-based entrepreneurship literature.
KeywordsGender entrepreneurship Sport entrepreneurship
- Acosta, R., & Carpenter, L. (2012). Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal, national study: Thirty five year update 1977–2012. Last accessed May 1, 2018, from www.acostacarpenter.org/
- Ahl, H., Berguland, K., Petersson, K., & Tillmar, M. (2016). From feminism to FemInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(2), 369–392.Google Scholar
- Ahl, H., & Nelson, T. (2015). How policy positions women entrepreneurs: A comparative analysis of state discourse in Sweden and the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(2), 273–291.Google Scholar
- Allen, W. (2000). Social networks and self-employment. Journal of Socio-Economics, 29, 487–501.Google Scholar
- Alvesson, M. (1987). Organisation theory and technocratic consciousness: Rationality, ideology and quality of work. New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Baron, R., Markman, G., & Hirza, A. (2001). Perceptions of women and men as entrepreneurs: Evidence for differential effects of attributional augmenting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 923–929.Google Scholar
- Bird, B., & Brush, C. (2002). A gendered perspective on organizational creation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(3), 41–65.Google Scholar
- Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2008). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.Google Scholar
- Brush, C. G., De Bruin, A., & Welter, F. (2009). A gender-aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 8–24.Google Scholar
- De Tienne, D., & Chandler, G. (2007). The role of human capital and gender in opportunity identification. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 365–385.Google Scholar
- Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Gender and business ownership: Questioning what and why. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour Research, 1(1), 4–27.Google Scholar
- Doherty, A., & Chelladurai, P. (1999). Managing cultural diversity in sport organizations: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 13(4), 280–397.Google Scholar
- Fink, J., & Pastore, D. (1999). Diversity in sport? Utilizing the business literature to devise a comprehensive framework of diversity initiatives. Quest, 51, 310–327.Google Scholar
- Franco, M., & Piceti, P. (2018). Family dynamics and gender perspective influencing copreneurship practices: A qualitative analysis in the Brazilian context. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-11-2017-0431.
- Greene, P. (2000). Self-employment as an economic behaviour: An analysis of self-employed women’s human and social capital. National Journal of Sociology, 12(1), 1–55.Google Scholar
- Greene, F., Han, L., & Marlow, S. (2011). Like mother, like daughter? Analyzing maternal influences upon women’s entrepreneurial propensity. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(2), 1–25.Google Scholar
- Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59–82.Google Scholar
- Hemme, F., Morais, D. G., Bowers, M. T., & Todd, J. S. (2017). Extending sport-based entrepreneurship theory through phenomenological inquiry. Sport Management Review, 20, 92–104.Google Scholar
- Jianakoplos, N., & Bernasek, A. (1998). Are women more risk averse? Economic Inquiry, 36(4), 620–630.Google Scholar
- Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 341–364.Google Scholar
- Lapchick, R., Costa, P., Sherrod, T., & Anjorin, R. (2012). The 2012 racial and gender report card: National Football League. UCF Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport. Last visited May 1, 2018, from www.tidesport.org/RGRC/2012
- Lefkowitz, J. (1994). Sex-related differences in job attitudes and dispositional variables: Now you see them. Academy of Management Journal, 37(2), 323–349.Google Scholar
- Lim, S., & Envick, B. (2013). Gender and entrepreneurial orientation: A multi-country study. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9(3), 465–482.Google Scholar
- Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Lombard, K. (2000). Female self-employment and demand for flexible, nonstandard work schedules. Economic Inquiry, 39(2), 214–237.Google Scholar
- Maden, C. (2015). A gendered lens on entrepreneurship: Women entrepreneurship in Turkey. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 30(4), 312–331.Google Scholar
- Marlow, S., & McAdam, M. (2015). Incubation or induction? Gendered identity work in the context of technology business incubation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(4), 791–816.Google Scholar
- Marlow, S., & Patton, D. (2005). All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance, and gender. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(6), 717–735.Google Scholar
- Minniti, M., & Nardone, C. (2007). Being in someone else’s shoes: The role of gender in nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 28, 223–238.Google Scholar
- Minnitti, M., Arenius, P., & Langowitz, N. (2005). 2004 global entrepreneurship monitor special topic report: Women and entrepreneurship. Babson Park, MA: Centre for Women’s Leadership at Babson College.Google Scholar
- Mirchandani, K. (1999). Feminist insight on gendered work: New directions in research on women and entrepreneurship. Gender, Work and Organization, 6(4), 224–235.Google Scholar
- Pastore, D. (1993). Job satisfaction and female college coaches. The Physical Educator, 50(4), 216–221.Google Scholar
- Ratten, V. (2012). Sport entrepreneurship: Challenges and directions for future research. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 4(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
- Ratten, V., & Miragaia, D. (2019). Entrepreneurial passion amongst female athletes. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 1–19.Google Scholar
- Shaw, S., & Frisby, W. (2006). Can gender equity be more equitable? Promoting an alternative frame for sport management research, education and practice. Journal of Sport Management, 20(4), 483–509.Google Scholar
- Smith, A., & Stewart, B. (2009). The special features of sport: A critical revisit. Sport Management Review, 13, 1–13.Google Scholar
- Sturm, S. (2001). Second generation employment discrimination: A structural approach. Columbia Law Review, 101(3), 458–568.Google Scholar
- Welter, F., Smallbone, D., Mirzakhalikova, D., Schakirova, N., & Maksudova, C. (2006). Women entrepreneurs between tradition and modernity—The case of Uzbekistan. In F. Welter, D. Smallbone, & N. Isakova (Eds.), Enterprising women in transition economies (pp. 45–66). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Zdroik, J., & Babiak, K. (2017). Networking with a purpose: Men and women’s perception of career networking in sport NGBs. Sport Business and Management: An international Journal, 7(3), 234–252.Google Scholar