Improving Bioavailability of Vitamin A in Food by Encapsulation: An Update

  • Vaibhav Kumar Maurya
  • Manjeet Aggarwal
  • Vijay Ranjan
  • K. M. Gothandam
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 39)


Vitamin A is an obligatory micronutrient for healthy human life as it cannot be synthesized de novo and has to be acquired from dietary sources. The poor water solubility and susceptibility against photochemical degradation make vitamin A relatively unstable during food processing as well as storage. To combat prevailing vitamin A deficiency, various strategies have already been adopted in pharmaceutical industries to develop vitamin A formulation which has the ability to protect and minimize its degradation. On the one hand, in pharmaceutical formulations, vitamin A may be coupled with sub-toxic effects due to its buildup in the liver and other vital organ, while on the other hand its involvement against various health disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer has recently compelled the population to achieve vitamin A via pharmaceutical supplements, functional foods or food supplements. The success of pharmaceutical application encouraged food technologists to develop numerous premixes encapsulating vitamin A appropriately which can be successfully applied for the development of food supplements or vitamin A-rich functional foods. So this chapter is an update of the principal encapsulation techniques adopted for the development of vitamin A nanomaterials to improve its bioavailability and associated challenges with fabrication method.


Vitamin A Retinol Encapsulation Bioavailability Micro-/nanoencapsulation Toxicity Functional food 



ATP-binding cassette


Atomic forces microscopy


Adenosine triphosphate


Cellular retinol binding protein


Dynamic light scattering


Differential scanning calorimetry


European Union


Food and Drug Administration


Food Safety and Standards Authority of India


Fourier transform infrared


Gastrointestinal tract


Hepatic stellate cells


Lecithin retinol acyltransferase




Oil in water




Recommended dietary allowance


Scanning electron microscopy


Transmission electron microscopy


Thermogravimetric analysis




Ultraviolet A


Ultraviolet B


Water in oil








World Health Organization




  1. Aditya N, Ko S (2015) Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs): delivery vehicles for food bioactives. Rsc Adv 5:30902–30911. Scholar
  2. Albertini B, Di Sabatino M, Calogerà G, Passerini N, Rodriguez L (2010) Encapsulation of vitamin a palmitate for animal supplementation: formulation, manufacturing and stability implications. J Microencapsul 27:150–161. Scholar
  3. Allen LH, Haskell M (2002) Estimating the potential for vitamin a toxicity in women and young children. J Nutr 132:2907S–2919S. Scholar
  4. Amenta V et al (2015) Regulatory aspects of nanotechnology in the agri/feed/food sector in EU and non-EU countries. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 73:463–476. Scholar
  5. Argimón M, Romero M, Miranda P, Mombrú ÁW, Miraballes I, Zimet P, Pardo H (2017) Development and characterization of vitamin A-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical application. J Braz Chem Soc 28:1177–1184. Scholar
  6. Arsić I, Vuleta G (1999) Influence of liposomes on the stability of vitamin a incorporated in polyacrylate hydrogel. Int J Cosmet Sci 21:219–225. Scholar
  7. Bauernfeind JC (1980) The safe use of vitamin a: a report of the international vitamin a consultative group (IVACG). Nutr Found Washington, DC 10:450. Scholar
  8. Beaulieu L, Savoie L, Paquin P, Subirade M (2002) Elaboration and characterization of whey protein beads by an emulsification/cold gelation process: application for the protection of retinol. Biomacromolecules 3:239–248. Scholar
  9. Berlin Grace V, Rimashree B (2015) Liposome encapsulated all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has enhanced immunomodulatory and inflammation reducing activities in mice model anti-Cancer agents. Med Chem 15:196–205. Scholar
  10. Bozzuto G, Molinari A (2015) Liposomes as nanomedical devices. Int J Nanomed 10:975. Scholar
  11. Braithwaite MC, Kumar P, Choonara YE, du Toit LC, Tomar LK, Tyagi C, Pillay V (2017) A novel multi-tiered experimental approach unfolding the mechanisms behind cyclodextrin-vitamin inclusion complexes for enhanced vitamin solubility and stability. Int J Pharm 532:90–104. Scholar
  12. Breusch B, Rager C (2004) Skin care composition with retinyl ester as vitamin a propionate retinyl palmitate d-alpha tocopherol rice amino acids and liposomes and method of application. Google Patents.
  13. Carafa M, Marianecci C, Salvatorelli M, Di Marzio L, Cerreto F, Lucania G, Santucci E (2008) Formulations of retinyl palmitate included in solid lipid nanoparticles: characterization and influence on light-induced vitamin degradation. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 18:119–124. Scholar
  14. Carlotti ME, Sapino S, Trotta M, Battaglia L, Vione D, Pelizzetti E (2005) Photostability and stability over time of retinyl palmitate in an O/W emulsion and in SLN introduced in the emulsion. J Dispers Sci Technol 26:125–138. Scholar
  15. Cerreto F, Scalzo M, Cesa S, Paolicelli P, Casadei MA (2011) Solid lipid nanosuspensions based on low melting lipids as protective system of retinyl palmitate. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 21:479–483. Scholar
  16. Chansri N, Kawakami S, Yamashita F, Hashida M (2006) Inhibition of liver metastasis by all-trans retinoic acid incorporated into O/W emulsions in mice. Int J Pharm 321:42–49. Scholar
  17. Chapman MS (2012) Vitamin a: history, current uses, and controversies. In: Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery, 2012, vol 1. Front Med Commun:11–16. Scholar
  18. Chau C-F, Wu S-H, Yen G-C (2007) The development of regulations for food nanotechnology. Trends Food Sci Technol 18:269–280. Scholar
  19. Chaudhari A, Nitin N (2015) Role of oxygen scavengers in limiting oxygen permeation into emulsions and improving stability of encapsulated retinol. J Food Eng 157:7–13. Scholar
  20. Choudhry QN et al (2016) Saponin-based nanoemulsification improves the antioxidant properties of vitamin a and E in AML-12 cells. Int J Mol Sci 17:1406. Scholar
  21. Clares B, Calpena AC, Parra A, Abrego G, Alvarado H, Fangueiro JF, Souto EB (2014) Nanoemulsions (NEs), liposomes (LPs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for retinyl palmitate: effect on skin permeation. Int J Pharm 473:591–598. Scholar
  22. Council NR (1989) Recommended dietary allowances. National Academies Press.
  23. Cristiano MC, Cosco D, Celia C, Tudose A, Mare R, Paolino D, Fresta M (2017) Anticancer activity of all-trans retinoic acid-loaded liposomes on human thyroid carcinoma cells. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 150:408–416. Scholar
  24. Daeihamed M, Dadashzadeh S, Haeri A, Faghih Akhlaghi M (2017) Potential of liposomes for enhancement of oral drug absorption. Curr Drug Deliv 14:289–303. Scholar
  25. Desai KGH, Jin Park H (2005) Recent developments in microencapsulation of food ingredients. Dry Technol 23:1361–1394. Scholar
  26. Dowling AP (2004) Development of nanotechnologies. Mater Today 7:30–35. Scholar
  27. Eskandar NG, Simovic S, Prestidge CA (2009) Chemical stability and phase distribution of all-trans-retinol in nanoparticle-coated emulsions. Int J Pharm 376:186–194. Scholar
  28. Faulks RM, Southon S (2005) Challenges to understanding and measuring carotenoid bioavailability. Biochim Biophys Acta (BBA)-Mol Basis Dis 1740:95–100. Scholar
  29. Gao S, McClements DJ (2016) Formation and stability of solid lipid nanoparticles fabricated using phase inversion temperature method. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 499:79–87. Scholar
  30. Gao Q, Wang C, Liu H, Chen Y, Tong Z (2010) Dual nanocomposite multihollow polymer microspheres prepared by suspension polymerization based on a multiple pickering emulsion. Polym Chem 1:75–77. Scholar
  31. Geszke-Moritz M, Moritz M (2016) Solid lipid nanoparticles as attractive drug vehicles: composition, properties and therapeutic strategies. Mat Sci Eng C 68:982–994. Scholar
  32. Ghorani B, Tucker N (2015) Fundamentals of electrospinning as a novel delivery vehicle for bioactive compounds in food nanotechnology. Food Hydrocoll 51:227–240. Scholar
  33. Ghouchi-Eskandar N, Simovic S, Prestidge CA (2012) Solid-state nanoparticle coated emulsions for encapsulation and improving the chemical stability of all-trans-retinol. Int J Pharm 423:384–391. Scholar
  34. Gobbi de Lima J, Carvalho Brito-Oliveira T, de Pinho SC (2016) Characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of ice creams incorporated with beta-carotene encapsulated in solid lipid microparticles. Food Sci Technol 36:664–671. Scholar
  35. Gómez-Mascaraque LG, Tordera F, Fabra MJ, Martínez-Sanz M, Lopez-Rubio A (2018) Coaxial electrospraying of biopolymers as a strategy to improve protection of bioactive food ingredients. Innovative Food Sci Emerg Technol 51:2. Scholar
  36. Gonçalves A, Estevinho BN, Rocha F (2016) Microencapsulation of vitamin a: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 51:76–87. Scholar
  37. Gonçalves A, Estevinho BN, Rocha F (2017) Design and characterization of controlled-release vitamin a microparticles prepared by a spray-drying process. Powder Technol 305:411–417. Scholar
  38. Gupta C, Arora S, Syama MA, Sharma A (2018) Physicochemical characterization of native and modified sodium caseinate- Vitamin A complexes. Food Res Int 106:964–973. Scholar
  39. Haghiralsadat F, Amoabediny G, Naderinezhad S, Helder MN, Kharanaghi EA, Zandieh-Doulabi B (2017) Overview of preparation methods of polymeric and lipid-based (noisome, solid lipid, liposome) nanoparticles: a comprehensive review. Int J Polym Mater Polym Biomater 67(6):383–400. Scholar
  40. He W, Guo X, Feng M, Mao N (2013) In vitro and in vivo studies on ocular vitamin A palmitate cationic liposomal in situ gels. Int J Pharm 458:305–314. Scholar
  41. Herath T (2007) Effect of whey protein isolate on the oxidative stability of Vitamin A.
  42. Hillyer JF, Albrecht RM (2001) Gastrointestinal persorption and tissue distribution of differently sized colloidal gold nanoparticles. J Pharm Sci 90:1927–1936. Scholar
  43. Huang S-J, Sun S-L, Chiu C-C, Wang L-F (2013) Retinol-encapsulated water-soluble succinated chitosan nanoparticles for antioxidant applications. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 24:315–329. Scholar
  44. Huang Z, Li X, Zhang T, Song Y, She Z, Li J, Deng Y (2014) Progress involving new techniques for liposome preparation. Asian J Pharm Sci 9:176–182. Scholar
  45. Hwang Y-I, Ludescher RD (2002) Stabilization of retinol through incorporation into liposomes. J Biochem Mol Biol 35:358–363. Scholar
  46. Jani P, Halbert G, Langridge J, Florence A (1989) The uptake and translocation of latex nanospheres and microspheres after oral administration to rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 41:809–812. Scholar
  47. Jarho P, Urtti A, Järvinen K, Pate DW, Järvinen T (1996) Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin increases aqueous solubility and stability of anandamide. Life Sci 58:181–185. Scholar
  48. Jee J-P, Lim S-J, Park J-S, Kim C-K (2006) Stabilization of all-trans retinol by loading lipophilic antioxidants in solid lipid nanoparticles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 63:134–139. Scholar
  49. Jenning V, Gohla SH (2001) Encapsulation of retinoids in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). J Microencapsul 18:149–158. Scholar
  50. Jenning V, Gysler A, Schäfer-Korting M, Gohla SH (2000a) Vitamin A loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical use: occlusive properties and drug targeting to the upper skin. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 49:211–218. Scholar
  51. Jenning V, Schäfer-Korting M, Gohla S (2000b) Vitamin A-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical use: drug release properties. J Control Release 66:115–126. Scholar
  52. Jeon HS et al (2013) A retinyl palmitate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle system: effect of surface modification with dicetyl phosphate on skin permeation in vitro and anti-wrinkle effect in vivo. Int J Pharm 452:311–320. Scholar
  53. Jung YJ, Truong NKV, Shin S, Jeong SH (2013) A robust experimental design method to optimize formulations of retinol solid lipid nanoparticles. J Microencapsul 30:1–9. Scholar
  54. Katouzian I, Jafari SM (2016) Nano-encapsulation as a promising approach for targeted delivery and controlled release of vitamins. Trends Food Sci Technol 53:34–48. Scholar
  55. Kawakami S et al (2005) Biodistribution characteristics of all-trans retinoic acid incorporated in liposomes and polymeric micelles following intravenous administration. J Pharm Sci 94:2606–2615. Scholar
  56. Keller BC (2001) Liposomes in nutrition. Trends Food Sci Technol 12:25–31. Scholar
  57. Kim J-S (2016) Liposomal drug delivery system. J Pharm Investig 46:387–392. Scholar
  58. Ko S, Lee S-C (2010) Effect of nanoliposomes on the stabilization of incorporated retinol. Afr J Biotechnol 9:6158–6161. Scholar
  59. Koeda T, Wada Y, Neoh T-L, Wada T, Furuta T, Yoshii H (2014) Encapsulation of retinyl palmitate with a mixture of cyclodextrins and maltodextrins by the kneading method. Food Sci Technol Res 20:529–535. Scholar
  60. Krinsky NI, Johnson EJ (2005) Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease. Mol Asp Med 26:459–516. Scholar
  61. Lee M-H, Oh S-G, Moon S-K, Bae S-Y (2001) Preparation of silica particles encapsulating retinol using O/W/O multiple emulsions. J Colloid Interface Sci 240:83–89. Scholar
  62. Lee S-C, Yuk H-G, Lee D-H, Lee K-E, Hwang Y-I, Ludescher RD (2002) Stabilization of retinol through incorporation into liposomes. J Biochem Mol Biol 35:358–363. Scholar
  63. Lee K-E, Kim J-J, Yuk H-G, Jang J-Y, Lee S-C (2003) Effect of phase transition temperature of phospholipid on the stability of retinol incorporated into liposomes. Prevent Nutr Food Sci 8:235–238. Scholar
  64. Lee JS, Nam YS, Kang BY, Han SH, Chang IS (2004) Vitamin A microencapsulation within poly (methyl methacrylate)-g-polyethylenimine microspheres: localized proton buffering effect on vitamin A stability. J Appl Polym Sci 92:517–522. Scholar
  65. Lee S-C, Lee K-E, Kim J-J, Lim S-H (2005) The effect of cholesterol in the liposome bilayer on the stabilization of incorporated retinol. J Liposome Res 15:157–166. Scholar
  66. Lin HS, Chean CS, Ng YY, Chan SY, Ho PC (2000) 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin increases aqueous solubility and photostability of all-trans-retinoic acid. J Clin Pharm Ther 25:265–269. Scholar
  67. Lin H-S, Leong WWY, Yang JA, Lee P, Chan SY, Ho PC (2007) Biopharmaceutics of 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) formulated with modified β-cyclodextrins. Int J Pharm 341:238–245. Scholar
  68. Liu Y (2003) Beta-lactoglobulin complexed vitamins A and D in skim milk: shelf life and bioavailability.
  69. Liu W, Ye A, Singh H (2015) Progress in applications of liposomes in food systems. In: Sagis LMC (ed) Microencapsulation and microspheres for food applications. Academic Press, New York, pp 151–170. Scholar
  70. Loewen AJ (2014) Optimizing the loading of vitamin A and vitamin D into re-assembled casein micelles and investigating the effect of micellar complexation on vitamin D stability. Food Chem 240:472–481. Scholar
  71. Loewen A, Chan B, Li-Chan ECY (2018) Optimization of vitamins A and D3 loading in re-assembled casein micelles and effect of loading on stability of vitamin D3 during storage. Food Chem 240:472–481. Scholar
  72. Loveday SM, Singh H (2008) Recent advances in technologies for vitamin A protection in foods. Trends Food Sci Technol 19:657–668. Scholar
  73. Maurya VK, Aggarwal M (2017) Enhancing bio-availability of vitamin D by Nano-engineered based delivery systems-an overview. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6:340–353. Scholar
  74. McCormack B, Gregoriadis G (1998) Drugs-in-cyclodextrins-in-liposomes: an approach to controlling the fate of water insoluble drugs in vivo. Int J Pharm 162:59–69. Scholar
  75. Mohan MS (2014) Casein micelles and their properties: polydispersity. Association with Vitamin A and Effect of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization. Scholar
  76. Moldenhauer J-P, Regiert M, Wimmer T (1999) Complexes of gamma-cyclodextrin and retinol or retinol derivatives, processes for their preparation and their use. Google Patents. Scholar
  77. Monroig Ó, Navarro JC, Amat F, Hontoria F (2007) Enrichment of Artemia nauplii in vitamin A, vitamin C and methionine using liposomes. Aquaculture 269:504–513. Scholar
  78. Moyano M, Segall A (2011) Vitamin A palmitate and-lipoic acid stability in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application. J Cosmet Sci 62:405–415. Scholar
  79. Mozafari MR, Khosravi-Darani K, Borazan GG, Cui J, Pardakhty A, Yurdugul S (2008) Encapsulation of food ingredients using nanoliposome technology. Int J Food Prop 11:833–844. Scholar
  80. Mueller L, Boehm V (2011) Antioxidant activity of β-carotene compounds in different in vitro assays. Molecules 16:1055–1069. Scholar
  81. Müller WEG, Tolba E, Dorweiler B, Schröder HC, Diehl-Seifert B, Wang X (2015) Electrospun bioactive mats enriched with Ca-polyphosphate/retinol nanospheres as potential wound dressing. Biochem Biophys Rep 3:150–160. Scholar
  82. Müllertz A, Ogbonna A, Ren S, Rades T (2010) New perspectives on lipid and surfactant based drug delivery systems for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol 62:1622–1636. Scholar
  83. Munoz-Botella S, Martın M, Del Castillo B, Lerner D, Menendez J (2002) Differentiating geometrical isomers of retinoids and controlling their photo-isomerization by complexation with cyclodextrins. Anal Chim Acta 468:161–170. Scholar
  84. Naseri N, Valizadeh H, Zakeri-Milani P (2015) Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers: structure, preparation and application. Adv Pharm Bull 5:305. Scholar
  85. Nekkanti V, Venkatesan N, Betageri GV (2015) Proliposomes for oral delivery: progress and challenges. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 16:303–312. Scholar
  86. Nik AM, Langmaid S, Wright AJ (2012) Nonionic surfactant and interfacial structure impact crystallinity and stability of β-carotene loaded lipid nanodispersions. J Agric Food Chem 60:4126–4135. Scholar
  87. Noh J, Kim J, Kim JS, Chung YS, Chang ST, Park J (2018) Microencapsulation by pectin for multi-components carriers bearing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic active agents. Carbohydr Polym 182:172–179. Scholar
  88. Numata Y, Mazzarino L, Borsali R (2015) A slow-release system of bacterial cellulose gel and nanoparticles for hydrophobic active ingredients international. J Pharm 486:217–225. Scholar
  89. Okuro PK, de Matos Junior FE, Favaro-Trindade CS (2013) Technological challenges for spray chilling encapsulation of functional food ingredients. Food Technol Biotechnol 51:171–182Google Scholar
  90. Olson JA (1987) Recommended dietary intakes (RDI) of vitamin A in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 45:704–716. Scholar
  91. Pan Y, Tikekar RV, Wang MS, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Nitin N (2015) Effect of barrier properties of zein colloidal particles and oil-in-water emulsions on oxidative stability of encapsulated bioactive compounds. Food Hydrocoll 43:82–90. Scholar
  92. Pan T-L, Wang P-W, Hung C-F, Aljuffali IA, Dai Y-S, Fang J-Y (2016) The impact of retinol loading and surface charge on the hepatic delivery of lipid nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 141:584–594. Scholar
  93. Panfili G, Manzi P, Pizzoferrato L (1998) Influence of thermal and other manufacturing stresses on retinol isomerization in milk and dairy products. J Dairy Res 65:253–260. Scholar
  94. Penniston KL, Tanumihardjo SA (2006) The acute and chronic toxic effects of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 83:191–201. Scholar
  95. Pezeshky A, Ghanbarzadeh B, Hamishehkar H, Moghadam M, Babazadeh A (2016) Vitamin A palmitate-bearing nanoliposomes: preparation and characterization. Food Biosci 13:49–55. Scholar
  96. Pinkaew S, Wegmuller R, Hurrell R (2012) Vitamin A stability in triple fortified extruded, artificial rice grains containing iron, zinc and vitamin A. Int J Food Sci Technol 47:2212–2220. Scholar
  97. Pisetpackdeekul P, Supmuang P, Pan-In P, Banlunara W, Limcharoen B, Kokpol C, Wanichwecharungruang S (2016) Proretinal nanoparticles: stability, release, efficacy, and irritation. Int J Nanomedicine 11:3277. Scholar
  98. Puntel A, Maeda A, Golczak M, Gao S-Q, Yu G, Palczewski K, Lu Z-R (2015) Prolonged prevention of retinal degeneration with retinylamine loaded nanoparticles. Biomaterials 44:103–110. Scholar
  99. Redmond KA, Nguyen T-S, Ryan RO (2007) All-trans-retinoic acid nanodisks. Int J Pharm 339:246–250. Scholar
  100. Rothman KJ, Moore LL, Singer MR, Nguyen U-SDT, Mannino S, Milunsky A (1996) Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. Obstet Gynecol Surv 51:275–276. Scholar
  101. Sagalowicz L, Leser ME (2010) Delivery systems for liquid food products. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 15:61–72. Scholar
  102. Salvia-Trujillo L, Qian C, Martín-Belloso O, McClements D (2013) Influence of particle size on lipid digestion and β-carotene bioaccessibility in emulsions and nanoemulsions. Food Chem 141:1472–1480. Scholar
  103. Santos DT, Meireles MA (2010) Carotenoid pigments encapsulation: fundamentals, techniques and recent trends. Open Chem Eng J 4:42–50. Scholar
  104. Sapino S, Carlotti M, Pelizzetti E, Vione D, Trotta M, Battaglia L (2005) Protective effect of SLNs encapsulation on the photodegradation and thermal degradation of retinyl palmitate introduced in hydroxyethylcellulose gel. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 15:159–165. Scholar
  105. Sauvant P, Cansell M, Sassi AH, Atgié C (2012) Vitamin A enrichment: caution with encapsulation strategies used for food applications. Food Res Int 46:469–479. Scholar
  106. Schafroth N, Arpagaus C, Jadhav UY, Makne S, Douroumis D (2012) Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 90:8–15. Scholar
  107. Schroeder R (2018) Microgels for long-term storage of vitamins for extended spaceflight. Life Sci Space Res 16:26–37. Scholar
  108. Semenova EM, Cooper A, Wilson CG, Converse CA (2002) Stabilization of all-trans-retinol by cyclodextrins: a comparative study using HPLC and fluorescence spectroscopy. J Incl Phenom Macrocycl Chem 44:155–158. Scholar
  109. Sharma VK (2016) Solid lipid nanoparticles system: an overview. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2:450–461. Scholar
  110. Siddikuzzaman, Grace VB (2013) Antioxidant potential of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and enhanced activity of liposome encapsulated ATRA against inflammation and tumor-directed angiogenesis. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 35:164–173. Scholar
  111. Siddikuzzaman, VMB G (2012) Inhibition of metastatic lung cancer in C57BL/6 mice by liposome encapsulated all trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Int Immunopharmacol 14:570–579. Scholar
  112. Siddikuzzaman, VMB G (2014) Anti-metastatic study of liposome-encapsulated all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in B16F10 melanoma cells-implanted C57BL/6 Mice. Cancer Investig 32:507–517. Scholar
  113. Singh AK, Das J (1998) Liposome encapsulated vitamin A compounds exhibit greater stability and diminished toxicity. Biophys Chem 73:155–162. Scholar
  114. Speranza A, Corradini M, Hartman T, Ribnicky D, Oren A, Rogers M (2013) Influence of emulsifier structure on lipid bioaccessibility in oil–water nanoemulsions. J Agric Food Chem 61:6505–6515. Scholar
  115. Suh D-C et al (2014) Enhanced in vitro skin deposition properties of retinyl palmitate through its stabilization by pectin. Biomol Ther 22:73. Scholar
  116. Taepaiboon P, Rungsardthong U, Supaphol P (2007) Vitamin-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate nanofiber mats as transdermal and dermal therapeutic agents of vitamin a acid and vitamin E. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 67:387–397. Scholar
  117. Taha EI, Al-Saidan S, Samy AM, Khan MA (2004) Preparation and in vitro characterization of self-nanoemulsified drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of all-trans-retinol acetate. Int J Pharm 285:109–119. Scholar
  118. Tang JW, Cho H, Kim J, Wang ZG, Hwang KT (2017) Optimization of microencapsulation of β-lactoglobulin–vitamin a using response surface methodology. J Food Proc Preserv 41(1):e12747. Scholar
  119. Toriyabe N et al (2017) The delivery of small interfering rna to hepatic stellate cells using a lipid nanoparticle composed of a vitamin A-scaffold lipid-like material. J Pharm Sci 106:2046–2052. Scholar
  120. Trichard L, Fattal E, Besnard M, Bochot A (2007) α-Cyclodextrin/oil beads as a new carrier for improving the oral bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. J Control Release 122:47–53. Scholar
  121. Vilanova N, Solans C (2015) Vitamin A palmitate–β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes: characterization, protection and emulsification properties. Food Chem 175:529–535. Scholar
  122. Visentini FF, Sponton OE, Perez AA, Santiago LG (2017a) Biopolymer nanoparticles for vehiculization and photochemical stability preservation of retinol. Food Hydrocoll 70:363–370. Scholar
  123. Visentini FF, Sponton OE, Perez AA, Santiago LG (2017b) Formation and colloidal stability of ovalbumin-retinol nanocomplexes. Food Hydrocoll 67:130–138. Scholar
  124. Wakaskar RR (2017) General overview of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, spongosomes and cubosomes. J Drug Target 26:1–26. Scholar
  125. Weber S, Zimmer A, Pardeike J (2014) Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for pulmonary application: a review of the state of the art. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 86:7–22. Scholar
  126. Wegmüller R, Zimmermann MB, Bühr VG, Windhab EJ, Hurrell RF (2006) Development, stability, and sensory testing of microcapsules containing iron, iodine, and vitamin a for use in food fortification. J Food Sci 71:S181. Scholar
  127. Wen HE, Min F, Ding D (2010) Study on the preparation of vitamin A palmitate liposomes coated by N-trimethyl chitosan and their drug release characteristic in vitro. Chin J Hospital Pharm 11:013. Scholar
  128. Wen P, Wen Y, Zong M-H, Linhardt RJ, Wu H (2017) Encapsulation of bioactive compound in electrospun fibers and its potential application. J Agric Food Chem 65:9161–9179. Scholar
  129. West KP Jr (2002) Extent of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children and women of reproductive age. J Nutr 132:2857S–2866S. Scholar
  130. WHO (2009) Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995–2005: WHO global database on vitamin A deficiencyGoogle Scholar
  131. Xia Q, Kong R (2011) Freeze-drying and characterization of vitamin a palmitate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Materials Science Forum, 2011. Trans Tech Publ:365–369. Scholar
  132. Xie YL, Zhou HM, Qian HF (2006) Effect of addition of peach gum on physicochemical properties of gelatin-based microcapsule. J Food Biochem 30:302–312. Scholar
  133. Xie YL, Zhou HM, Zhang ZR (2007) Effect of relative humidity on retention and stability of vitamin A microencapsulated by spray drying. J Food Biochem 31:68–80. Scholar
  134. Xie Y-L, Zhou H-M, Liang X-H, He B-S, Han X-X (2010a) Study on the morphology, particle size and thermal properties of vitamin A microencapsulated by starch octenylsucciniate. Agric Sci China 9:1058–1064. Scholar
  135. Xie Y, Wang A, Lu Q, Hui M (2010b) The effects of rheological properties of wall materials on morphology and particle size distribution of microcapsule. Czech J Food Sci 28:433–439. Scholar
  136. Yadav N, Khatak S, Sara UVS (2013) Solid lipid nanoparticles-a review. Int J Appl Pharm 5:8–18. Scholar
  137. Yanaki T (2001) Preparation of O/W/O type multiple emulsions and its application to cosmetics. In: studies in surface science and catalysis, vol 132. Elsevier, pp 1009-1014. Scholar
  138. Yao M, Xiao H, McClements DJ (2014) Delivery of lipophilic bioactives: assembly, disassembly, and reassembly of lipid nanoparticles. Ann Rev Food Sci Technol 5:53–81. Scholar
  139. Yao M, McClements DJ, Xiao H (2015) Improving oral bioavailability of nutraceuticals by engineered nanoparticle-based delivery systems. Curr Opin Food Sci 2:14–19. Scholar
  140. Yap KL, Liu X, Thenmozhiyal JC, Ho PC (2005) Characterization of the 13-cis-retinoic acid/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes by phase solubility, photostability, physicochemical and computational analysis. Eur J Pharm Sci 25:49–56. Scholar
  141. Yildirim I et al (2017) Retinol initiated poly (lactide) s: stability upon polymerization and nanoparticle preparation. Polym Chem 8:4378–4387. Scholar
  142. Yoshida K, Sekine T, Matsuzaki F, Yanaki T, Yamaguchi M (1999) Stability of vitamin A in oil-in-water-in-oil-type multiple emulsions. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76:1–6. Scholar
  143. Zheng W (2009) A water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (W/O/O/W) method for producing drug-releasing, double-walled microspheres. Int J Pharm 374:90–95. Scholar
  144. Zimmermann MB, Wegmueller R, Zeder C, Chaouki N, Biebinger R, Hurrell RF, Windhab E (2004) Triple fortification of salt with microcapsules of iodine, iron, and vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 80:1283–1290. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vaibhav Kumar Maurya
    • 1
  • Manjeet Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Vijay Ranjan
    • 2
  • K. M. Gothandam
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Basic and Applied ScienceNational Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and ManagementSonepatIndia
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science, National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and ManagementSonepatIndia
  3. 3.School of Bio Sciences and TechnologyVellore Institute of TechnologyVelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations