Biomedical Applications of Iron- and Cobalt-Based Biomagnetic Alloy Nanoparticles

  • Amirsadegh Rezazadeh Nochehdehi
  • Sabu Thomas
  • Neerish RevaprasaduEmail author
  • Yves Grohens
  • Nandakumar Kalarikkal
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 39)


Nanotechnology has allowed scientists, materials engineers, chemists and physicians to work at the molecular and cellular levels due to its important advances in the life sciences and healthcare. The use of nanoparticle materials offers major advantages due to their unique size and physicochemical properties. Magnetic alloy nanoparticles are attractive materials due to widespread applications in various fields such as biotechnology, medical, material science and engineering. In this regard attention has been paid to the synthesis of various biomagnetic alloy nanoparticles (BMANPs). The biocompatibility and physical properties of these materials provide a very promising future for their use in biomedicine. Preparation of nanoparticles consisting of pure iron is a complicated task, because they usually contain oxide compounds, carbides and other impurities. Synthesis of pure iron nanoparticles is a complicated process because they usually contain oxide/carbides compounds. Besides, very high reactivity, toxicity and intrinsic instability of some nanoparticles caused to focus on coating nanoparticles by biocompatible materials. For example, the toxicity of cobalt nanoparticles is due to the cobalt leakage, which can be improved by inorganic encapsulation of cobalt, for example, with silica, hydroxyapatite, chitosan and sort of that. In addition, high sensitivity to oxidation of magnetic nanoparticles can be solved partially by coating or alloying such as gold, platinum, cobalt, carbon, etc. Hence, the synthesis and characterization of iron- and cobalt-based magnetic nanoparticles with biomedical applications is the purpose of this review.

We have reviewed different synthetic procedures which can partially solve the existing issue on magnetic nanoparticles such as micro-emulsion and polyol methods. The various surface modification technologies used to reduce the oxidation rate and toxicity are also included. The control of parameters to optimize the physical-chemical properties of nanoparticles is a key focus of this review. Two general fields of applications, namely, diagnosis (analytical biosensor/nucleotide interactions or visual bioimaging) and transportation (drug delivery and gene transfection), are discussed.


Iron Cobalt Magnetic Nanoparticles Biomedical Applications 



This work was supported financially by the International and Inter University Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IIUCNN), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India. The authors also acknowledge the National Research Foundation (NRF), South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) program.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amirsadegh Rezazadeh Nochehdehi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sabu Thomas
    • 3
  • Neerish Revaprasadu
    • 4
    Email author
  • Yves Grohens
    • 5
  • Nandakumar Kalarikkal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Science, Engineering and TechnologyUniversity of South Africa (Unisa)RoodepoortSouth Africa
  2. 2.International and Inter University Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IIUCNN), Mahatma Gandhi University (MGU)KottayamIndia
  3. 3.Polymer Science & Engineering, School of Chemical SciencesMahatma Gandhi University (MGU)KottayamIndia
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and AgricultureUniversity of ZululandKwaZulu-NatalSouth Africa
  5. 5.Université de Bretagne Sud (UBS)Lorient CedexFrance

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