Advertisement

Cropping Zones and Production Technology

  • Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair
Chapter

Abstract

Cropping zones and production technology: The main aspects covered in the chapter are climatic and soil requirements of ginger, cropping zones, and production technology in which discussion centers on planting material (seed size and seed number), seed rate, seed treatment, land preparation, planting, spacing, depth of planting, mulching, weed management, hilling (earthing up), irrigation, shade, cropping system, crop rotation, harvesting, and seed storage. There will also be discussion on alternate method of ginger production.

Keywords

Cropping zones Production techniques 

References

  1. Aclan, F., & Quisumbing, F. C. (1976). Fertilizer requirement, mulch and light attenuation on the yield and quality of ginger. Philippine Agriculturist, 60, 183–191.Google Scholar
  2. Adaniya, S., Shoda, M., & Fujiada, R. (1989). Effect of day length on flowering and rhizome swelling in ginger. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 58, 49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad, S. N., Asghar, K. A., & Mohar, T. A. (1983). Ginger cultivation as affected by various mulches in the Punjab plains. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(1), 34–36.Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad, R., Azeem, M., & Ahmad, N. (2009). Productivity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) by amendment of vermicompost and biogas slurry in saline soils. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41(6), 3107–3116.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed, N. U., Rahman, M. M., Hoque, M. M., & Hossain, A. K. M. (1988). Effect of seed size and spacing on the yield of ginger. Bangladesh Horticulture, 16(2), 50–52.Google Scholar
  6. AICRPS. (1992). All India Coordinate Research Project on Spices, Annual Report 1991–1992. National Research Centre for Spices, Calicut, Kerala State.Google Scholar
  7. AICSCIP. (1985). All India Coordinated Spices and Cashew nut Improvement Project, Annual Report 1983–1984. Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, Kerala State.Google Scholar
  8. Aiyadurai, S. G. (1966). A review of research on spices and Cashew nut in India Regional Office (Spices and Cashew nut) (p. 228). Ernakulam: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.Google Scholar
  9. Ajithkumar, K., & Jayachandran, B. K. (2003). Influence of shade regimes on yield and quality of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). J. Spices Aromat Crops, 12, 29–33.Google Scholar
  10. Akamine, E. K. (1962). Storage of fresh ginger rhizomes. Bulletin Hawaii Agriculture Experiment Station No. 130, 23.Google Scholar
  11. Aliyu, L., & Lagoke, S. T. O. (2001). Profitability of chemical weed control in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) production in northern Nigeria. Crop Protection, 20(3), 237–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ancy, J., & Jayachandran, B. K. (1993). Effect of shade and fertilizers on the quality of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.). South Indian Horticulture, 41(4), 219–222.Google Scholar
  13. Ancy, J., & Jayachandran, B. K. (1996). Nutrient requirement of ginger under shade. Indian Cocoa Arecanut Spices J., 20(4), 115–116.Google Scholar
  14. Anderson, T., du Pleissis, S. F., Niemand, T. R., & Scholtz, A. (1990). Evaporative cooling of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.). Acta Horticulturae, 275(1), 173–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Anonymous. (1970). Guide to Production of Ginger Extension guide No 7. Aerals, ABU, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  16. Attoe, E. E., & Osodeke, V. E. (2009). Effects of NPK on growth and yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) in soils of contrasting parent materials of cross river state. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 8(11), 1261–1268.Google Scholar
  17. Babu, P., & Jayachandran, B. K. (1997). Mulch requirement of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) undershade. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 6(2), 141–143.Google Scholar
  18. BAE. (1971). Bureau of agricultural economics. The Australian Ginger Growing Industry. Canberra: Bureau of Agricultural Economics.Google Scholar
  19. Barooah, L., & Saikia, S. (2006). Effect of integrated weed control measures on yield of rhizome, volatile oil and oleoresin in ginger cv. Nadia. Journal of Asian Horticulture, 2(4), 317–319.Google Scholar
  20. Beale, A. J., Ramirez, L., Diaz, M., Munoz, M. A., & Flores, C. (2006). Effect of seed set weight of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on yield. In: 42nd Annual meeting of caribbean food crops society, 9–14 July, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Available from: <http://cfcs.eea.uprm. edu/Presentations>.
  21. Bharadwaj, S. S., Gupta, P. K., Dohroo, N. P., & Shyam, K. R. (1988). Biological control of rhizome rot of ginger in storage. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(10), 56–58.Google Scholar
  22. Bisht, J. K., Chandra, S., Chauhan, V. S., & Singh, R. D. (2000). Performance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) with fodder tree based silvi–horti system in hills. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 70(7), 431–433.Google Scholar
  23. Chhata, L. K., Jeewa, R., & Thakore, B. B. L. (2007). Effect of meteorological parameters on severity of storage rot of ginger. Journal of Agrometeorology, 9(1), 125–127.Google Scholar
  24. Cho, G. H., Yaoo, C. H., Choi, J. W., Park, K. H., Hari, S. S., & Kim, S. J. (1987). Research report. Rural development administration, plant environment mycology and farm products utilisation. Korea Republic, 29(2), 30–42.Google Scholar
  25. Chowdhury, P. C. (1988). Intercropping short duration summer crops with ginger in Darjeeling hills. Indian Farming, 37(11), 45.Google Scholar
  26. Chukwu, G. O., & Onyekwere, P. S. N. (1996). Complementary effect of NPK fertilizer and mulch on the growth and yield of irrigated ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). African Journal of Root and Tuber Crops, 1(2), 26–29.Google Scholar
  27. Colbran, R. C., & Davies, J. J. (1969). Studies on hot water treatment and soil fumigation for control of root-knot in ginger. Queensland Journal of Agriculture Animal Science, 26, 439–445.Google Scholar
  28. CSIR. (1976). The wealth of India, raw materials (Vol. II). New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.Google Scholar
  29. Das, N. (1999). Effect of organic mulching on root-knot nematode population, rhizome rot incidence and yield of ginger. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 7(1), 112–114.Google Scholar
  30. Das, A., Sudhisri, S., & Paikaray, N. K. (2006). Planting techniques and alternate mulches for enhancing soil moisture retention and productivity of rainfed ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 2(1), 211–215.Google Scholar
  31. Dohroo, N. P., & Sharma, S. (1997). Effect of organic amendments and intercropping on spore density of VAM fungi and yellows of ginger. Research in Plant Disease, 12(1), 46–48.Google Scholar
  32. Elpo, E. R. S., Negrelle, R. R. B., & de Rucker, N. G. A. (2008). Ginger production in Morrets Town. Parana State Science Agraria, 9(2), 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eveson, J. P., Bryant, P. J., & Asher, O. J. (1978). Germination and early growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) effect of constant and fluctuation in soil temperature. Tropical Agriculture Trinidad, 55, 1–7.Google Scholar
  34. Furutani, S. C., Villanueva, J., & Tanable, M. J. (1985). Effect of ethephon and heat on the growth and yield of edible ginger. Horticultural Science, 20, 392–393.Google Scholar
  35. Gavande, S. S. (1986). Studies on the effect of scheduling of irrigation and nitrogen levels on growth and yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) M.Sc(Ag) Thesis, Mahatma Phule Agricultural University, Rahuri, India.Google Scholar
  36. George, B. E., Sreedevi, P., & Vikraman Nair, R. (1998). Effect of shade on plant characters and net assimilation rate of ginger cultivars. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 36(1–2), 65–68.Google Scholar
  37. Ghosh, D. K. (2008). Performance of ginger as intercrop in coconut plantation with organic mulches and the effect of intercropping on the main crop. Indian Coconut Journal, 51(4), 20–24.Google Scholar
  38. Ghosh, K. K., Vinoy, T., & Saha, D. (2006). Performance of ginger under agroforestry system. Journal of Interacademicia, 10(3), 337–341.Google Scholar
  39. Girma, H., & Kindie, T. (2008). The effects of seed rhizome on the growth, yield and economic return of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 7(2), 213–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Govender, A., Kinness, A., & Jonnalgadda, S. B. (2009). Impact of soil quality on elemental uptake by Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome). International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 89(5), 367–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Graham, J. A. (1936). Methods of ginger cultivation in Jamaica. Journal of Jamaica Agriculture Society, 40, 231–232.Google Scholar
  42. Gupta, R. (1974). Process ginger for new products. Indian Farming, 23(1), 79–14.Google Scholar
  43. Hackett, C., & Carolane, J. (1982). Edible horticultural crops A Compendium of Information on Fruit, Vegetable, Spice and Nut Species. In Part I: Introduction and Crop Profiles. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  44. Haque, M. E., Roy, A. K., & Sikdar, B. (2004). Performance of ginger, turmeric and mukhi kachu under shade of mango orchard. Horticultural Journal, 17, 101–107.Google Scholar
  45. Hayden, A. L., Brigham, L. A., & Giacomelli, G. A. (2004). Aeroponic cultivation of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes. Acta Horticulturae, 659, 397–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haynes, P. H., Patridge, I. J., & Sivan, P. (1973). Ginger production in Fiji. Fiji Agriculture Research Journal, 35, 51–56.Google Scholar
  47. Hazarika, U., Dutta, R. K., & Chakravorty, R. (2009). Morphology and yield attributing features of ginger and turmeric under natural shade of som (Persea bombycina Kost) plants. Advances in Plant Sciences, 22(1), 115–117.Google Scholar
  48. Hegde, N. K., Sulikere, G. S., & Rethinam, B. P. (2000). Distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and performance of ginger under arecanut shade. In K. V. Ramana, J. Santhosh, J. Eapen, K. Nirmal Babu, K. S. Krishnamurthy, & A. Kumar (Eds.), Centennial conference on spices and aromatic plants (pp. 107–112). Calicut: Indian society of spices.Google Scholar
  49. Hepperly, P., Zee, F.T., Kai, R.M., Arakawa, C.N., Meisner, M., Kraky, B., et al. (2004). Producing bacterial wilt-free ginger in greenhouse culture Extension Service Bulletins P.6. University of Hawaii at Manoa., Available from: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/ freepubs/pdf/scm-8.pdf. Accessed 29 Feb 2008.
  50. Hijmans, R. J., Guarino, L., Jarvis, A., O’Bien, R., Mahtur, P., Bussink, C., et al. (2005). DIVA- GIS Version 5.2 Manual. International Potato Center and International Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  51. IISR. (2002). Indian institute of spices research, Calicut, Kerala State, India, p. 17.Google Scholar
  52. IISR. (2005). Annual Report 2004–2005. Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala State, India, pp. 38–39.Google Scholar
  53. Islam, A. K. M. S., Asher, C. J., Edwards, D. G., & Evenson, J. P. (1978). Germination and early growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) II. Effects of 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid or elevated temperature pretreatments. Tropical Agriculture, 55, 127–134.Google Scholar
  54. Jaswal, S. C., Mishra, V. K., & Verma, K. S. (1993). Inercropping ginger and turmeric with poplar (Populus deltoides “G-3” Marsh.). Agroforestry Systems, 22(2), 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jha, R. C., Maurya, K. R., & Pandey, R. P. (1986). Influence of mulches on the yield of ginger in Bihar. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal, 9(4), 87–90.Google Scholar
  56. Joachim, A. W. R., & Pieris, H. A. (1934). Ginger manurial and cultural experiments. Tropical Agriculture, 82, 340–353.Google Scholar
  57. Jogi, B. S., Singh, I. P., Dua, H. S., & Sukhija, P. S. (1972). Changes in crude fibre, fat and protein content of ginger at different stages of ripening. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 42, 1011–1015.Google Scholar
  58. Kandiannan, K., Sivaraman, K., & Thankamani, C. K. (1996). Agronomy of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)—a review. J. Spices Aromat Crops, 5, 1–27.Google Scholar
  59. Kandiannan, K., Koya, K. M. A., & Peter, K. V. (1999). Mixed cropping of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and maize. J. Spices Aromat Crops, 5, 1–27.Google Scholar
  60. Kandiannan, K., Parthasarathy, U., Krishnamurthy, K. S., Srinivasan, V. (2010). Ginger phenology and growing degree days—a tool to schedule cultural operations. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Soil, Water and Crop Management for Higher Productivity of Spices, 11–12 February 2010. Centre for Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM), Calicut, Kerala State, pp. 172–180.Google Scholar
  61. Kannan, K., & Nair, K. P. V. (1965). Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in Kerala. The Madras Agricultural Journal, 52, 168–176.Google Scholar
  62. KAU. (1992). Final research report of ICAR Ad Hoc scheme shade studies on coconut based intercropping situations. Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur District, Kerala State.Google Scholar
  63. KAU (1994). Scheduling irrigation to ginger under varying nitrogen levels Sixteenth Zonal Research and Extension Advisory Council Meeting. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Pattambi, Kerala State.Google Scholar
  64. Kingra, I. S., & Gupta, M. L. (1977). Ginger cultivation in Himachal. Kurukshetra, 25(19), 14–15.Google Scholar
  65. Korikanthimath, V. S., Hegde, R., & Sivaraman, K. (1995). Integrated input management in coffee based spices multistoried cropping system. Indian Coffee, 59(2), 3–6.Google Scholar
  66. Korla, B. N., Rattan, R. S., & Dohroo, N. P. (1989). Effect of seed rhizome size on growth and yield in ginger. Indian Cocoa Arecanut Spices J., 13, 47–48.Google Scholar
  67. Korla, B. N., Rattan, R. S., & Dohroo, N. P. (1990). Effect of mulches on rhizome growth and yield of ginger. South Indian Horticulture, 38, 163–164.Google Scholar
  68. Kumar, M., & Korla, B. N. (1998). A note on age of transplants, mulches and Ethrel treatments on yield and quality of ginger. Vegetable Science, 25(1), 100–101.Google Scholar
  69. Kumar, B. M., Thomas, J., & Fisher, R. F. (2001). Ailanthus triphysa at different density and fertilizer levels in Kerala, India: tree growth, light transmittance and understorey ginger yield. Agroforestry Systems, 52(2), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kumar, R. D., Sreenivasulu, G. B., Prashanth, S. J., Jayaprakashnarayayan, R. P., Nataraj, S. K., & Hegde, N. K. (2010). Performance of ginger in tamarind plantation (as intercrop) compared to sole cropping (ginger). International Journal of Agriculture Science, 6(1), 193–195.Google Scholar
  71. Kurian, A., Valsala, P. A., & Nair, G. S. (1997). In situ green manure production as mulch material for ginger. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 35(1/2), 56–58.Google Scholar
  72. Lawrence, B. M. (1984). Major tropical spices—ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Perfum Flavorist, 9(5), 1–40.Google Scholar
  73. Lee, S. A. (1974). Effect of rhizome size and fungicide treatment on the sprouting and early growth of ginger. Malaysian Agriculture Journal, 48, 480–491.Google Scholar
  74. Lee, M. T., Edward, D. G., & Asher, C. J. (1981). Nitrogen nutrition of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) II. Establishment of leaf analysis test. Field Crops Research, 4(1), 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meenakshi, S. (1959). Ginger earns good income for the west coast. Indian Farming, 9(4), 12–13.Google Scholar
  76. Melifonwu, A. A., & Orkwor, G. C. (1990). Chemical weed control in ginger production from mini-setts. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 3, 43–50.Google Scholar
  77. Mirchandani, T. J. (1971). Investigations into Methods and Practices of Farming in Various States. New Delhi: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.Google Scholar
  78. Mishra, S., Mishra, S. S. (1982). Effect of mulching and weedicides on growth and fresh rhizome yield of ginger. In: Abstracts of Papers Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science, Hissar, India.Google Scholar
  79. Mishra, A. C., & Pandey, V. K. (2009). Effect of mulching on plant growth and rhizome yield in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in rainfed plateaus of Jharkhand. International Journal of Plant Science (Muzaffarnagar), 4(2), 385–387.Google Scholar
  80. Mohanty, D. C. (1977). Studies on the effect of different mulch materials on the performance of ginger in the hills of Pottangi. Orissa Journal of Horticulture, 5, 11–17.Google Scholar
  81. Mohanty, D. C., & Sarma, Y. N. (1979). Performance of ginger in tribal areas of Orissa, India, as influenced by method of planting, seed treatment, manuring and mulching. J. Plantation Crops, 6, 14–16.Google Scholar
  82. Mohanty, D. C., Naik, B. S., & Panda, B. S. (1990). Ginger research in Orissa with reference to its varietal and cultural improvement. Indian Cocoa Arecanut Spices J., 14(2), 61–65.Google Scholar
  83. Muralidharan, A. (1973). Effect of graded doses of NPK on the yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) var Rio de Janeiro. The Madras Agricultural Journal, 60, 664–666.Google Scholar
  84. Nair, P.C.S., 1982. Agronomy of ginger and turmeric. In: Nair, M. K., Premkumar, T., Ravindran, P. N., Sarma, Y. R. (Eds.), Proceedings of the national seminar on ginger and turmeric Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, pp. 63–68.Google Scholar
  85. Nair, P. C. S., & Varma, A. S. (1970). Ginger in Kerala: steps towards increased production. Indian Farming, 20(3), 37–39.Google Scholar
  86. NARC. (2008). Ginger—crop management—seed size and spacing. Available from: http://www. narc.gov.np/NARHome/HIGHLIGHTS/AnnReport9798/Ginger.htm. Accessed 29 Feb 2008.
  87. Natarajan, C. P., Bai, R. P., Krishnamurthy, M. N., Raghavan, B., Sankaracharya, N. B., Kuppuswamy, S., et al. (1972). Chemical composition of ginger varieties and dehydration studies of ginger. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9, 120–124.Google Scholar
  88. Newman, S. M., Bennet, K., & Wu, Y. (1997). Performance of maize, beans and ginger as intercrops in Paulownia plantations in China. Agroforestry Systems, 39(1), 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nimkar, S. A., & Korla, B. N. (2009). Yield and economics of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) cultivation. Green Farming, 13(1), 948–949. (Special).Google Scholar
  90. Ning, T. G., Shu, L. L., Jing, J., & Wang, H. H. (2009). Early growing technique of deep sowing ginger in level row with plastic mulch. China Vegetables, 2, 65–67.Google Scholar
  91. Nizam, S. A., & Jayachandran, B. K. (2001). Performance of mini seed rhizome as planting material in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). In Proceedings of the 13th Kerala Science Congress (pp. 457–458). Trivandrum: STEC.Google Scholar
  92. NRCS. (1989). Storage method of ginger seed rhizomes. Calicut: National Research Centre for Spices.Google Scholar
  93. Nybe, E. V., & Mini Raj, N. (2005). Ginger Production in India and Other South Asian Countries I. In P. N. Ravindran & K. Nirmal Babu (Eds.), Ginger: The Genus Zingiber Medicinal and Aromatic Plants—Industrial Profiles (Vol. 41, pp. 211–240). Washington, DC: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  94. Nybe, E. V., Nair, P. C. S., & Mohankumar, N. (1982). Assessment of yield and quality components in ginger. In M. K. Nair, T. Premkumar, P. N. Ravindran, & Y. R. Sarma (Eds.), Proceedings National Seminar on Ginger and Turmeric (pp. 24–29). Kasaragod: Central Plantation Crops Research Institute.Google Scholar
  95. Okwuowulu, P. A. (1988). Effect of seed ginger weight on flowering and rhizome yield of field grown edible ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in Nigeria. Tropical Science, 28, 171–176.Google Scholar
  96. Okwuowulu, P. A. (1992). Effects of depth of seed placement and age at harvest on the tuberous stem yield and primary losses in edible ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in south eastern Nigeria. Tropical Landwirtsch Vet Medicine, 2, 163–168.Google Scholar
  97. Okwuowulu, P. A. (2005). Ginger in Africa and the Pacific Ocean islands. In P. N. Ravindran & K. Nirmal Babu (Eds.), Ginger: The Genus Zingiber Medicinal and Aromatic Plants— Industrial Profiles (Vol. 41, pp. 279–303). Washington, DC: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  98. Okwuowulu, P. A., Ene, L. S. O., Odurukwe, S. O., & Ojinaka, T. (1989). Effect of time of planting and age at harvest on yield of stem tuber and shoots in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in the rain forest zone of southeastern Nigeria. Experimental Agriculture, 26, 209–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Owadally, A. L., Ramtohul, M., & Heasing, J. M. (1981). Ginger production and research in its cultivation. Revue agricole et sucrière de l'Ile Maurice, 60, 131–148.Google Scholar
  100. Panigrahi, U. C., & Patro, G. K. (1985). Ginger cultivation in Orissa. Indian Farming, 35(5), 3–4.Google Scholar
  101. Park, M. (1937). Seed treatment of ginger. Tropical Agriculture, 89, 3–7.Google Scholar
  102. Parthasarathy, V. A., Kandiannan, K., Anandaraj, M., & Devasahayam, S. (2003). Technical advances for improving production of ginger. In H. P. Singh & M. Tamil Selvan (Eds.), Indian ginger—production and utilization (pp. 24–40). Calicut: Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development.Google Scholar
  103. Paull, R. E., Chen, N. J., & Goo, T. T. C. (1988). Control of weight loss and sprouting of ginger rhizome in storage. Horticultural Science, 23, 734–736.Google Scholar
  104. Paulose, T. T. (1973). Ginger cultivation in India Proceedings of the Conference on Spices (pp. 117–121). London: Tropical Products Institute.Google Scholar
  105. Pawar, H. K., & Patil, B. R. (1987). Effects of application of NPK through FYM and fertilizers and time of harvesting on yield of ginger. Journal of Maharashtra Agriculture University, 12, 350–354.Google Scholar
  106. Pegg, K. G., Moffett, M. L., & Colbran, R. C. (1969). Diseases of Ginger in Queensland. The Buderim Ginger Growers Cooperative Association Limited, Australia.Google Scholar
  107. Phogat, K. P. S., & Pandey, D. (1988). Influence of the time of planting on the growth and yield of ginger var Rio de Janeiro. Progressive Horticulture, 20, 40–68.Google Scholar
  108. Prajapati, R. K., Nongrum, K., & Singh, L. (2007). Growth and productivity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) under kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn) based agri-silviculture system. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 9(1), 12–19.Google Scholar
  109. Prentice, A. (1959). Ginger in Jamaica. World Crops, 11, 25–26.Google Scholar
  110. Purseglove, J. W., Brown, E. G., Green, C. L., & Robbins, S. R. J. (1981). Spices (Vol. 2). London: Longman Group Limited.Google Scholar
  111. Ra, S. W., Shin, D. K., Shin, B. W., Lee, E. M., & Roh, T. H. (1989). A study of cold injury to seed ginger research reports of the rural development administration. Horticulture, 31(3), 39–42.Google Scholar
  112. Rafie, A. R., Teresa, O., & Guerrero, W. (2003). Hydroponic production of fresh ginger roots (Zingiber officinale) as an alternative method for South Florida. Proceedings of Florida State Horticulture Society, 116, 51–52.Google Scholar
  113. Rahman, H., Karuppaiyan, R., Kishore, K., & Denzongpa, R. (2009). Traditional practices of ginger cultivation in Northeast India (Special Issue: indigenous knowledge of the ethnic people of Northeast India in bioresources management). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 8(1), 23–28.Google Scholar
  114. Ram, D., Mathur, K., Lodha, B. C., & Webster, J. (2000). Evaluation of resident biocontrol agents as seed treatments against ginger rhizome rot. Indian Phytopathology, 53(4), 450–454.Google Scholar
  115. Randhawa, K. S., & Nandpuri, K. S. (1970). Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in India—a review. Punjab Horticulture Journal, 10, 111–112.Google Scholar
  116. Randhawa, K. S., Nandpuri, K. S., & Bajwa, M. S. (1972). The growth and yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as influenced by different dates of sowing. Journal of Research (PAU Ludhiana), 9, 32–34.Google Scholar
  117. Ratnambal, M. J., Gopalm, A., & Nair, M. K. (1989). Quality evaluation in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in relation to maturity. Journal of Plantation Crops, 15, 108–117.Google Scholar
  118. Ravindran, P. N., Nirmal Babu, K., & Shiva, K. N. (2005). Botany and crop improvement of ginger. In P. N. Ravindran & K. Nimal Babu (Eds.), Ginger: the genus Zingiber medicinal and aromatic plants—industrial profiles. Washington, DC: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  119. Ravisankar, C., & Muthusamy, S. (1986). Dry matter production and recovery of dry ginger in relation to light intensity. Indian Cocoa Arecanut Spices J., 10, 4–6.Google Scholar
  120. Rethinam, P., Sivaraman, K., & Sushama, P. K. (1994). Nutrition of turmeric. In K. L. Chadha & P. Rethinam (Eds.), Plantation and spice crops. . Part 1. Advances in Horticulture (pp. 477–489). New Delhi: Malhotra Publishing House.Google Scholar
  121. Ridley, H. N. (1912). Ginger spices (pp. 389–421). London: Macmillan Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Roy, A. R., & Wamanan, P. P. (1989). Effect of seed-rhizome size on growth and yield of ginger. Advances in Plant Sciences, 2, 62–66.Google Scholar
  123. Sahu, S. K., & Mitra, G. N. (1982). Influence of physicochemical properties of soil on yield of ginger and turmeric. Fertiliser News, 37(10), 59–63.Google Scholar
  124. Sanwal, S. K., Yadav, R. K., Yadav, D. S., Rai, N., & Singh, P. K. (2006). Ginger-based intercropping: highly profitable and sustainable in mild hill agroclimatic conditions of North East hill region. Vegetable Science, 33(2), 160–163.Google Scholar
  125. Sengupta, D. K., Maity, T. K., Som, M. G., & Bose, T. K. (1986). Effect of different rhizome size on the growth and yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Indian Agriculture, 30, 201–204.Google Scholar
  126. Sengupta, D. K., Maity, T. K., & Dasgupta, B. (2009). Effect of mulching on ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in the hilly region of Darjeeling district. Journal of Crop Weed, 5(1), 206–208.Google Scholar
  127. Shaikh, A. A., Ghadage, H. L., & Jawale, S. M. (2006a). Effect of planting layouts and times of earthing up on growth contributing characters and rhizome yield in ginger. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultyre University, 31(3), 275–278.Google Scholar
  128. Shaikh, A. A., Ghadage, H. L., & Jawale, S. M. (2006b). Influence of planting methods and time of earthing up on yield, nutrient uptake and balance in ginger (Zingiber officinale). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 76(4), 246–248.Google Scholar
  129. Sharma, G. C., & Bajaj, B. K. (1998). Effect of intercropping bell pepper with ginger on plant parasitic nematode populations and crop yields. The Annals of Applied Biology, 133(2), 199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Singh, B. S. (1982). Cultivation of ginger and turmeric in Meghalaya. In M. K. Nair, T. Premkumar, P. N. Ravindran, & Y. R. Sarma (Eds.), Proceedings national seminar on ginger and turmeric (pp. 224–226). Kasaragod: Central Plantation Crops Research Institute.Google Scholar
  131. Singh, K. A., Rai, R. N., & Pradhan, I. P. (1991). Agroforestry systems in Sikkim hills. India Farming, 41(3), 7–10.Google Scholar
  132. Singh, A., Singh, B., Singh, A., & Singh, P. (2003). Response of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to methods of planting and levels of phosphorus in a rehabilitated forest developed in sodic land. J. Spices Aromat. Crops, 12, 63–66.Google Scholar
  133. Sinha, B. N. (2002). Effect of different weed management practices on growth, yield and quality parameters of ginger. (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Himachal Journal of Agriculture Research, 28(1/2), 30–33.Google Scholar
  134. Smith, M. K., Hamill, S. D., Gogel, B. J., & Seven-Ellis, A. A. (2004). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) autotetraploids with improved processing quality produced by an in vitro colchines treatment. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 44, 1065–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Srinivasan, V., Shiva, K. N., & Kumar, A. (2008). Ginger Organic Spices (pp. 335–386). New Delhi: New India Publishing Agency.Google Scholar
  136. Thomas, J., Kumar, B. M., Wahid, P. A., Kamalam, N. V., & Fisher, R. F. (1998). Root competition for phosphorus between ginger and Ailanthus triphysa in Kerala. India Agroforestry System, 41(3), 293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Timpo, G. M., & Oduro, T. A. (1977). The effect of storage on growth and yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc). Acta Horticulturae, 53, 337–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. UPOV. (1996). Guidelines for the conduct of tests for distinctness, uniformity and stability for ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Geneva: International Union for the Protection of new Varieties of Plants.Google Scholar
  139. Utpala, P., Johny, A. K., Parthasarathy, V. A., Jayarajan, K., & Madan, M. S. (2006). Diversity of ginger cultivation in India—a GIS study. J. Spices Aromat. Crops, 15(2), 93–99.Google Scholar
  140. Utpala, P., Jayarajan, K., Johny, A. K., & Parthasarathy, V. A. (2008). Identification of suitable areas and effect of climate change on Ginger—a GIS study. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 17(2), 25–29.Google Scholar
  141. Vaidya, V. G., Sahasrabuddhe, K. R., & Khuspe, V. S. (1972). Crop production and field experimentation. Poona: Continental Prakashan.Google Scholar
  142. Valsala, P. A., Amma, S. P., & Sudhadevi, P. K. (1990). Feasibility of growing daincha in the interspaces of ginger beds. Indian Cocoa Arecanut Spices J., 14(2), 65–66.Google Scholar
  143. Vanlalhluna, P. C., & Sahoo, U. K. (2008). Effect of different mulches on soil moisture conservation and productivity of rainfed ginger in an agroforestry system of Mizoram. Range Management Agroforestry, 29(2), 109–114.Google Scholar
  144. Wang, G., & Xu-Kun Zhang, Y. (2003). Effect of seed ginger size on growth and yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale). China Vegetables, 1, 13–15.Google Scholar
  145. Weiss, E. A. (1997). Essential oil crops (pp. 539–567). Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  146. Wen, S. Q., Kong, X. K., & Bo, X. (2006). Effect of soil bulk density on the growth, yield and quality of ginger. China Vegetables, 11, 18–20.Google Scholar
  147. Whiley, A. W. (1974). Ginger growing in Queensland. Queensland Agriculture Journal, 91, 100.Google Scholar
  148. Whiley, A. W. (1981). Effect of plant density on time of first harvest, maturity, knob size and yield in two cultivars of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) grown in Southeast Queensland. Tropical Agriculture Trinidad, 8, 245–251.Google Scholar
  149. Whiley, A. W. (1990). Effect of “seed piece” size and planting density on harvested “knob” size and yield in two cultivars of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) grown in Southeast Queensland. Acta Horticulturae, 275, 167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wilson, H., & Ovid, A. (1993). Growth and yield responses of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as affected by shade and fertilizer applications. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 16, 1539–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Winterton, D., & Richardson, K. (1965). An investigation into the chemical constituents of Queensland grown ginger. Queensland Journal of Agriculture Animal Science, 22, 205.Google Scholar
  152. Xianchang, Y., Zhifend, C., & Xiheng, A. (1996). Effect of plastic mulch on growth and yield of ginger production. China Vegetables, 6, 15–16.Google Scholar
  153. Xizhen, A., Zhenxian, Z., & Shaohui, W. (1998). Effect of temperature on photosynthetic characteristics of ginger leaves. China Vegetables, 3, 1–3.Google Scholar
  154. Xizhen, A., Jinfeng, S., & Xia, X. (2005). Ginger production in South East Asia. In P. N. Ravindran & K. Nirmal Babu (Eds.), Ginger: The Genus Zingiber Medicinal and Aromatic Plants–Industrial Profiles (Vol. 41, pp. 241–278). Washington: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  155. Yang, Z., Hua, Z. L., Long, Z. H., You, W. T., Yu, D. Y., & Qiao, Z. (2004). Control effect of pendimethalin-acetochlor emulsifiable concentrate on weeds in ginger field. Weed Science (China), 1, 46–48.Google Scholar
  156. Zaman, M. M., Sultana, N. A., & Rahman, M. M. (2008). Yield of ginger as influenced by plant spacing and planting depth. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology, 4(2), 54–58.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair
    • 1
  1. 1.International Agricultural ScientistCalicutIndia

Personalised recommendations