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Overview of Food Emulsifiers

  • Gerard L. Hasenhuettl
Chapter

Abstract

Emulsifiers, also known as surfactants, are composed of amphiphilic molecules which act to form and stabilize colloids, emulsions, and foams. They act at interfaces between mutually insoluble phases. The hydrophilic region is attracted to the aqueous phase, while the non-polar group seeks the lipid or air phase. Solid emulsifiers can crystallize into a number of crystal structures known as polymorphic forms. When mixed with water, the molecules can aggregate into mesophases which may prove useful for controlling physical properties of some foods.

Emulsifiers are food additives regulated by government bodies such as the FDA and EEC. Other countries may have their own constraints on the types of emulsifiers used.

Keywords

Amphiphilic Hydrophilic Lipophilic Food regulations Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) Direct food additives Anionic Cationic Amphoteric Nonionic Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance Bancroft’s Rule Mesophases Lamellar Hexagonal Cubic Factorial designs 

References

  1. Becher P (2001) Emulsions: theory and practice (3rd edn). American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Federal Register (2013) Code of Federal Regulations, title 21, parts 170–1999. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Israelachvili J (1992) Thermodynamic principles of self-assembly. In: Israelachvili J (ed) Intermolecular and surface forces. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. McClements DJ (2004) Food emulsions: principles, practices, and techniques (2nd edn). CRC Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Phillips GO (2009) In: Williams PA (ed) Handbook of hydrocolloids (2nd edn). Woodhead Publishing, Boca Raton, FLCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sjobiom J (2013) Emulsions: a fundamental and practical approach. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerard L. Hasenhuettl
    • 1
  1. 1.Cheetahtech International, LLCPort Saint LucieUSA

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