Path Planning for Semi-autonomous Agricultural Vehicles
An on-line path planning algorithm for automated tractor steering control in greenfield farming is proposed that follows points localized on the ground, and therefore utilizes structures provided by the environment, for orientation. Points marking a swath of hay are detected using a laser rangefinder mounted on the tractor cabin. The tractor is then steered along the path so that a trailer meets the swath at its centre position. Even in the presence of outliers, the presented planning method computes the polynomial path coefficients to be used for issuing commands to the tractor. The methodology employs a multi-step initialization procedure and robust iterative optimization.
This work has been supported by the COMET-K2 Center of the Linz Center of Mechatronics (LCM) funded by the Austrian federal government and the federal state of Upper Austria.
- 1.Gasparetto, A., Boscariol, P., Lanzutti, A., & Vidoni, R. (2015). Path planning and trajectory planning algorithms: A general overview. In G. Carbone, & F. Gomez-Bravo (Eds.), Motion and operation planning of robotic systems (pp. 3–27). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- 2.Sorniotti, A., Barber, P., & De Pinto, S. (2017). Path tracking for automated driving: A tutorial on control system formulations and ongoing research. In D. Watzenig, & M. Horn (Eds.), Automated driving (pp. 71–140). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- 3.Zhou, F., Song, B., & Tian, G. (2011). Bézier curve based smooth path planning for mobile robot. Journal of Information & Computational Science, 8(12), 2441–2450.Google Scholar
- 5.Yang, S., Wang, Z., & Zhang, H. (2017). Kinematic model based real-time path planning method with guide line for autonomous vehicle. In Proceedings of the 36th Chinese Control Conference, Dalian, China (pp. 990–994).Google Scholar
- 6.Choi, J., Curry, R., & Elkaim, G. (2008). Path planning based on Bézier curve for autonomous ground vehicles. In Proceedings of the Advances in Electrical & Electronics Engineering – IAENG Special Edition of the World Congress on Engineering & Computer Science, San Francisco (pp. 158–166).Google Scholar
- 8.Resende, P., & Nashashibi, F. (2010). Real-time dynamic trajectory planning for highly automated driving in highways. In Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Funchal (pp. 653–658).Google Scholar
- 9.Zhang, S., Simkani, M., & Zadeh, M. H. (2011). Automatic vehicle parallel parking design using fifth degree polynomial path planning. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, San Francisco (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
- 11.Pichler-Scheder, M., Ritter, R., Lindinger, C., Amerstorfer, R., & Edelbauer, R. (2018). Robust online polynomial path planning for agricultural vehicles in greenland farming. In Proceedings of the 16th Mechatronics Forum International Conference, Strathclyde (pp. 98–105).Google Scholar
- 15.SECO USA Inc, All-You-Need ARM Cortex A9 SBC Development Board—UDOO @ www.udoo.org/udoo-dual-and-quad/. Accessed May 20, 2019.