Envelope Coding and Processing: Implications for Perception and Behavior
How envelopes are processed in the electrosensory system and how this gives rise to behavioral responses has been the focus of extensive research. This chapter provides a comprehensive review on the mechanisms the brain exploits at different stages of sensory processing to extract meaningful information about these stimulus attributes and how this mediates behavioral responses. After a brief review of the relevant anatomy and circuitry, the natural statistics of envelopes in the electrosensory system are discussed in detail. This is followed by a review of the current state of knowledge as to the cellular and network mechanisms that give rise to envelope responses in the electrosensory system. In particular, it is highlighted how electrosensory neurons can optimally encode envelopes by matching their tuning properties to natural statistics. There is an emphasis throughout the chapter on the important parallels with the mammalian auditory and other systems, along with interesting future avenues of research.
KeywordsEnvelope Information theory Neural coding Neuromodulation Parallel processing Second-order statistics Sensory processing Wave type Weakly electric fish
Compliance with Ethics Requirements
Michael G. Metzen declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Maurice J. Chacron declares that he has no conflict of interest.
- Heiligenberg W (1991) Neural nets in electric fish. MIT Press, Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
- Huang CG, Metzen MG, Chacron MJ (2018) Feedback optimizes neural coding and perception of natural stimuli. eLife 7:e38935. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.389535
- Martinez D, Metzen MG, Chacron MJ (2016) Electrosensory processing in Apteronotus albifrons: implications for general and specific neural coding strategies across wave-type weakly electric fish species. J Neurophysiol 116(6):2909–2921. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00594.2016CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Middleton JW, Longtin A, Benda J, Maler L (2009) Postsynaptic receptive field size and spike threshold determine encoding of high-frequency information via sensitivity to synchronous presynaptic activity. J Neurophysiol 101(3):1160–1170. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.90814.2008CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rieke F, Warland D, de Ruyter van Steveninck RR, Bialek W (1996) Spikes: exploring the neural code. MIT Press, Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
- Watanabe A, Takeda K (1963) The change of discharge frequency by AC stimulus in a weak electric fish. J Exp Biol 40(1):57–66Google Scholar