Schizophrenia in Women

  • Mario R. Louzã
  • Helio Elkis


Gender differences in schizophrenia are well described in the literature since the beginning of the twentieth century. Differences are observed in the incidence, prevalence, age at onset, neurobiology, course, outcome, and treatment of the disorder. Taken together, they show that schizophrenia is usually more benign in females than in males. Treatment of women with schizophrenia should consider that they are more vulnerable to the side effects of antipsychotics, especially those that increase prolactin. Treatment should be initiated with low doses of antipsychotics, and these should be increased slowly according to therapeutic response. The use of antipsychotics in special situations, such as pregnancy and puerperium, is also discussed.


Schizophrenia Women Gender Sex Neurobiology Epidemiology Treatment Course Outcome Diagnosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario R. Louzã
    • 1
  • Helio Elkis
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryFaculty of Medicine of the University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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