Service Innovation in Forestry: The Perspective of Family Forest Owners
Given the critical contribution to diversity of the forested landscape provided by family ownerships, maintaining viability of family forestry is essential to forest sustainability. Innovation, in its various forms, can be an important contributor to maintain viability. Here we focus on the landscape for service innovation among family forestland owners, including discussion of the innovativeness of owners as well as the innovation system within which each owner operates. Service offerings are available to forest owners from various providers and adopting offerings can positively impact viability. Creating and offering services to society are another important potential ingredient for improved viability. Family forestland owners can offer a wide range of revenue generating services beyond traditional wood products. New technologies and business models present many opportunities for landowners. The challenge is designing an innovation system that facilitates both adoption and creation of innovations among family forestland owners. Our chapter concludes with a look at what the future might hold for service innovation and the family forestland owner.
KeywordsAdoption Innovation systems Innovativeness Service innovation
The authors would like to thank Richard Pine, President of O’Neill Pine and Glenn Ahrens, Professor at Oregon State University for their help in improving an earlier version of this chapter.
- Balch, O. (2013). Natura commits to sourcing sustainably from Amazon. The Guardian. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/natura-sourcing-sustainably-from-amazon.
- Business Wales. (2017). Glastir Woodland Creation | Farming Connect. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from https://businesswales.gov.wales/farmingconnect/posts/glastir-woodland-creation. Accessed 8 December 2017.
- Candiotti, J. P. (2014). Forestry innovation systems: An exploratory study of the perspectives of innovations in the Swedish forest sector and the forestry innovation systems. Master’s thesis.Google Scholar
- Dornelas, B., Esteves, F., & Carneiro, J. (2016). Natura—The international expansion of Brazilian cosmetics leader Natura: In search of a European scent. In R. Van Tulder, A. Verbeke, J. Carneiro, & M. A. Gonzalez-Perez (Eds.), The challenge of bric multinationals (pp. 317–347). Progress in International Business Research (Vol. 11). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Edquist, C. (1997). Systems of innovation: Technologies, organisations and institutions. London, Pinter.Google Scholar
- Edquist, C., & Johnson, B. (1997). System of innovation: overview and basic concepts. Systems of innovation: technologies, institutions and organizations. Abigdon, OX: Routledge Press from https://books.google.com/books.
- Edquist, C. (2001, June). The systems of innovation approach and innovation policy: An account of the state of the art (pp. 12–15). In DRUID conference, Aalborg.Google Scholar
- Edquist, C. (2005). Systems of innovation: Perspectives and challenges. In The oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 181–208). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- EEN. (2018). European Enterprise Network. Retrieved June 30, 2018, from https://een.ec.europa.eu/.
- European Commission. (2013). Forest Management Plans or Equivalent Instruments, Summary of Member States’ Replies to the DG ENV Questionnaire. European Commission, Directorate-General Environment. Directorate B—Natural Capital. ENV.B.1-Agriculture, Forests and Soil (46 p.).Google Scholar
- Fagerberg, J. (2005). Innovation: A guide to the literature. In The oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 1–26). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Favada, I. M., Karppinen, H., Kuuluvainen, J., Mikkola, J., & Stavness, C. (2009). Effects of timber prices, ownership objectives, and owner characteristics on timber supply. Forest Science, 55(6), 512–523.Google Scholar
- Follo, G., Nybakk, E., Barstad, J., & Talbot, B. (2015). Forest land ownership change in Norway. COST Action FP1201—FACESMAP Country Report. Retrieved June 30, 2019, from http://facesmap.boku.ac.at/index.php/activities-and-outputs/country-reports.
- Forestry Agency. (2012). Annual report on forest and forestry in Japan fiscal year 2012 (Summary). Forestry Agency. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from http://www.maff.go.jp/e/data/publish/attach/pdf/index-9.pdf.
- Freeman, C. (1987). Technology policy and economic performance: Lessons from Japan (p. 155). London, England: Pinter.Google Scholar
- Harrison, S., Herbohn, J., & Niskanen, A. (2002). Non-industrial, smallholder, small-scale and family forestry: What’s in a name? Small-Scale Forest Economics Management and Policy, 1(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
- Hogl, K., Pregernig, M., & Weiss, G. (2005). What is new about new forest owners? A typology of private forest ownership in Austria. Small–scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy, 4(3), 325–342.Google Scholar
- Hovgaard, A., & Hansen, E. (2004). Innovativeness in the forest products industry. Forest Products Journal, 54(1), 26–33.Google Scholar
- Jandrain, S., Puissant, T., Colson, V., & Rondeux, J. (2006) Un modèle de document simple de gestion (DSG) applicable en propriété forestière privée wallonne. Les Cahiers Forestiers de Gembloux, 33 (p. 27). Retrieved June 30, 2019, from http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/handle/2268/21459.
- Joshi, S., & Arano, K. G. (2009). Determinants of private forest management decisions: A study on West Virginia NIPF landowners. Forest Policy and Economics, 11(2), 118–125.Google Scholar
- Karppinen, H., & Berghäll, S. (2015). Forest owners’ stand improvement decisions: Applying the theory of planned behavior. Forest Policy and Economics, 50, 275–284.Google Scholar
- Likoko, E., & Kini, J. (2017). Inclusive business—A business approach to development. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 24(Supplement C), 84–88.Google Scholar
- List, J., Schwarzbauer, P., Braun, M., Werner, A., Langthaler, G., & Stern, T. (2016). Naive wood-supply predictions: Comparing two case studies from Austria. Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 133(2), 87–110.Google Scholar
- Lundvall, B.-A. (1992). National systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
- Mackenzie, C. (2017). Carbon assessment for forest owners. Retrieved December 15, 2017, from http://www.nnrg.org/carbon-assessments/.
- Mattila, O. (2015). Towards service-dominant thinking in the Finnish forestry service market. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Forest Sciences, Forest Products Marketing and Management (61 pp.). Dissertationes Forestales.Google Scholar
- Mendes, A. M. S. C., Štefanek, B., Feliciano, D., Mizaraite, D., Nonic, D., Kitchoukov, E., ... & Stoyanova, M. (2011). In Weiss G et al. (Ed.), Institutional innovation in European private forestry: the emergence of forest owners’ organizations (pp. 68–86).Google Scholar
- Natura. (2015). Natura 2015 Annual Report. How Natura generates value. Retrieved July 29, 2018, from https://natu.infoinvest.com.br/enu/5676/NaturaFO2015_ingles_v5%20(2).pdf.
- Nelson, R. (1993). National innovation systems: A comparative analysis. Oxford University Press, Inc.Google Scholar
- NIFA. (2017). The cooperative extension system. Retrieved December 5, 2017, from https://nifa.usda.gov/cooperative-extension-system.
- Niskanen, A., Slee, B., Ollonqvist, P., Pettenella, D., Bouriaud, L., & Rametsteiner, E. (2007). Entrepreneurship in the forest sector in Europe. University of Joensuu.Google Scholar
- NRS. (2008). Who owns America’s forests? Forest ownership patterns and family forest highlights from the National Woodland Owner Survey (8 pp.). Northern Research Station. NRS-INF-06-08. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Google Scholar
- Nybakk, E., Vennesland, B., Hansen, E., & Lunnan, A. (2008). Networking, innovation, and performance in Norwegian nature-based tourism. Journal of Forest Products Business Research, 5(4), 1–26.Google Scholar
- Nybakk, E., Crespell, P., Hanse, E., & Lunnan, A. (2009). Antecedents to forest owner innovativeness: An investigation of the non-timber forest products and services sector. Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 608–618.Google Scholar
- Nybakk E., Lawrence A., & Weiss G., (2015). Innovation in forest management for new forest owner types—A literature review. In Background paper of working group 2 “New forest management approaches”, COST Action FP1201 “Forest Land Ownership Changes in Europe: Significance for Management and Policy”.Google Scholar
- Osmond, J., & Upton, S. (2012). Growing our woodlands in Wales—The 100,000-hectare challenge. Institute of Welsh Affairs.Google Scholar
- OSWA. (2017). Main web site. Retrieved December 24, 2017, from https://www.oswa.org/.
- Peter, A. (2012). Forest management in the Natura 2000 ecological network in Romania—Present problems and perspectives. Revista pădurilor, 127(1), 21–27.Google Scholar
- Prejer, B., Levall, S., & Mark-Herbert, C. (2017). Fighting poverty as a challenge for business and management education—Developing business models for alleviating poverty: A case study of Stora Enso in Lao PDR. In M. Gudic, A. Rosenbloom, & C. Parkes (Eds.), Socially responsive organizations and the challenge of poverty (pp. 91–100). Greenleaf Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
- Private Forest Owner Association Styria Ltd. (2013). Waldverband Steiermark. Graz: Waldverband Steiermark. Retrieved December 24, 2017, from http://waldverband-stmk.at/Waldverband-Steiermark.
- Rajeev, V. (2011). New approaches to sustainable forest management: A study of service innovation in conserving forestry resources. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 2(6), 65–80.Google Scholar
- Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). Free Press.Google Scholar
- Saigal, S., Bose, S. Lal, P. Verma, M., & Pareek, P. S. (2006). Small and medium forest enterprise associations in India: A brief overview. IIED Small and Medium Forest Enterprise Series No. 18. Edinburgh, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
- Schmithüsen, F., & Hirsch, F. (2010). Private forest ownership in Europe. Geneva Timber and Forest Study Papers, 26. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20123244373.
- Snyder, M. (2014). What is forest fragmentation and why is it a problem? Center for Northern Woodlands Education, Autumn 2014 (82). Retrieved December 8, 2017, from https://northernwoodlands.org/articles/article/forest-fragmentation.
- UN. (2014). World urbanization prospects: The 2014 revision, highlights. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division, United Nations.Google Scholar
- Vedel, S. E., Jacobsen, J. B., & Thorsen, B. J. (2015). Forest owners’ willingness to accept contracts for ecosystem service provision is sensitive to additionality. Ecological Economics, 113(Supplement C), 15–24.Google Scholar
- WBCSD. (2011). Alliance for inclusive business. Inclusive business, creating value in Latin America. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Retrieved December 8, 2017, from http://www.snv.org/public/cms/sites/default/files/explore/download/wbcsd_snv_inclusive_business_latam.pdf.
- World Bank. (2008). Forests sourcebook: Practical guidance for sustaining forests in development cooperation. World Bank Publications.Google Scholar
- Yang, L., Wen, Y., & Aguilar, F. X. (2013). Nonindustrial family forest landowners’ stated willingness-to-participate in forest cooperatives in Southern China. International Journal of Forestry Research, 2013, Article ID 983168.Google Scholar
- Živojinović, I., Weiss, G., Dobšinská, Z., Lidestav, G., Feliciano, D., Hujala, T., et al. (2015). Forest land ownership changes in Europe. COST Action FP1201 FACESMAP Country Reports, Joint Volume. Retrieved June 30, 2019, from http://facesmap.boku.ac.at/index.php/activities-and-outputs/country-reports.