Advertisement

Value Creation and Innovation with Non-wood Forest Products in a Family Forestry Context

  • Gerhard WeissEmail author
  • Marla R. Emery
  • Jari Miina
  • Mikko Kurttila
  • Giulia Corradini
  • Patrick Huber
  • Harald Vacik
Chapter
Part of the World Forests book series (WFSE, volume 24)

Abstract

Non-wood forest products (NWFPs) have often-underestimated economic potential, particularly for family forest owners. Their role and value, however, is changing in the global West and so are the business opportunities and innovation needs associated with them. Focusing on industrialized countries, this chapter gives an overview of the broad range of goods and services connected with NWFPs, describing important innovation trends. In the core of the chapter, a number of case study analyses from Europe and North America illustrate the various ways NWFPs sourced through wild collection or specialized management systems can be utilized by family forest owners . We analyze the actor networks, value creation processes, and role of services for supporting such systems. While recognizing the importance of non-market values from NWFPs, our primary emphases are on business and income potential for family forestry. We conclude that the application of a service-dominant logic is helpful for understanding how new goods and services are developed by forest owners in networks of various kinds of public and private actors and within specific institutional and cultural contexts. From the analysis we also derive recommendations on how service providersand policy measures can purposefully support innovations in NWFPs in a family forestry context.

Keywords

Actor networks Case studies Industrialized countries Non-wood forest products (NWFPs) Service-dominant logic Value creation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Parts of this research was undertaken within the European research project StarTree “Multipurpose trees and non-wood forest products: a challenge and opportunity” and has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under grant agreement No. 311919. We want to thank the book editors, two anonymous reviewers and our colleagues Julia Jungmair, Alice Ludvig and Davide Pettenella for very helpful comments and suggestions. We furthermore want to acknowledge the great help from Ivana Živojinović with the figures.

References

  1. Äijälä, O., Koistinen, A., Sved, J., Vanhatalo, K., & Väisänen, P. (2014). Metsänhoidon suositukset [Forest management recommendations]. Metsätalouden kehittämiskeskus Tapion julkaisuja (In Finnish).Google Scholar
  2. Blackwell, M. (2011). The fungi: 1, 2, 3 ... 5.1 million species? American Journal of Botany, 98(3), 426–438. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1000298.
  3. Bonet, J. A., GonzÁlez-Olabarria, J. R., & Martínez De Aragón, J. (2014). Journal of Mountain Science, 11, 535. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2877-0.
  4. Buttoud, G. (2000). How can policy take into consideration the ‘full value’ of forests? Land Use Policy, 17, 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai, M., Pettenella, D., & Vidale, E. (2011). Income generation from wild mushrooms in marginal rural areas. Forest Policy and Economics, 13(3), 221–226.Google Scholar
  6. Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell, D. F. J. (2009). ‘Mode 3’ and ‘Quadruple Helix’: Toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem. International Journal of Technology Management, 46(3), 201–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chandler, J. D., & Vargo, S. L. (2011). Contextualization and valuein-context: How context frames exchange. Marketing Theory, 11(1), 35–49.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, S. L., Yu, H., Luo, H. M., Wu, Q., Li, C. F., & Steinmetz, A. (2016). Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants: Problems, progress, and prospects. Chinese Medicine, 11(1), art. no. 37.Google Scholar
  9. Cocks, M., Alexander, J., Mogano, L., & Vetter, V. (2016). Ways of belonging: Meanings of “nature” among Xhosa-speaking township residents in South Africa. Journal of Ethnobiology, 36(4), 820–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De-Miguel, S., Pukkala, T., & Yeşil, A. (2014). Integrating pine honeydew honey production into forest management optimization. European Journal of Forest Research, 133, 423–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edquist, C. (1997). Systems of innovation approaches—Their emergence and characteristics. Systems of innovation. Technologies, institutions and organizations. London: Pinter.Google Scholar
  12. Emery, M. R., Martin, S., & Dyke, A. (2006). Wild harvests from Scottish woodlands: Social, cultural and economic values of contemporary non-timber forest products. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission.Google Scholar
  13. Emery, M. R. (2002). Historical overview of nontimber forest product uses in the Northeastern United States. In E. T. Jones, R. J. McLain, & J. Weigand, J. (Eds.), Non timber forest products in the United States (pp. 3–25). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  14. Erickson, S. (2006). Iskigamizigan (sugarbush): A sequel to growing up Ojibwe. Mazina’igan Supplement, 1–2, 4–8.Google Scholar
  15. Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: From national systems and “mode 2” to a triple helix of university-industry-government relations. Research Policy, 29(2), 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. FAO. (2010). Global forest resources assessment 2010. Main Report. FAO Forestry Paper No. 163.Google Scholar
  17. Ford, R. I. (1985). The processes of plant food production in Prehistoric North America. In R. I. Ford (Ed.), Prehistoric food production in North America (pp. 1–18). Ann Arbor, MI: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  18. Forestry Commission. (2005). GB public opinion of forestry 2005. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission.Google Scholar
  19. Garcia-Gonzalo, J., Bushenkov, V. A., McDill, M. E., & Borges, J. G. (2015). A decision support system for assessing trade-offs between ecosystem management goals. An application in Portugal. Forests, 6, 65–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garibaldi, A., & Turner, N. J. (2004). Cultural keystone species: Implications for ecological conservation and restoration. Ecology and Society, 9(3), Art 1.Google Scholar
  21. Helles, F., & Vedel, S. E. (2006). Editorial: Experience economics—An emerging field within forest economics? Journal of Forest Economics, 12(3), 167–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hinrichs, C. C. (1998). Sideline and lifeline: The cultural economy of maple syrup production. Rural Sociology, 63(4), 507–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hislop, M., Edwards, D., Elliott, A., Martin, S., Morris, J., O’Brien, L., et al. (2006). A valuation of the economic and social contribution of forestry for people in Scotland: Draft interim report for Forestry Commission Scotland. Roslin: Forest Research.Google Scholar
  24. Kennedy, J. J., Thomas, J. W., & Glueck, P. (2001). Evolving forestry and rural development beliefs at midpoint and close of the 20th century. Forest Policy and Economics, 3(1–2), 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kilpeläinen, H., Salminen, O., Härkönen, K., Miina, J., & Kurttila, M. (2018). Integrating bilberry yields into regional long-term forest scenario analyses. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 33(4), 378–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kimmerer, R. W. (2013). Braiding sweetgrass: Indigenous wisdom, scientific knowledge, and the teachings of plants. Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions.Google Scholar
  27. Klenk, N. L. (2015). The development of assisted migration policy in Canada: An analysis of the politics of composing future forests. Land Use Policy, 44, 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuehn, D., Chase, L., Sharkey, T., & Powers, S. (2016). Perceptions of maple producers towards climate change (38 pp.). SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry.Google Scholar
  29. Kurttila, M., Pukkala, T., & Miina, J. (2018). Synergies and trade-offs in the production of NWFPs predicted in Boreal Forests. Forests, 9, 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kurttila, M., & Tahvanainen, V. (2016). Description of new decision support tools for optimization of MPT and NWFP management (106 pp). Deliverable 2.4. FP7 Project no 311919 KBBE.2012.1.2-06, European Commission.Google Scholar
  31. Lake, F. K., Emery, M. R., Baumflek, M. J., Friday, K., Kamelamela, K., Kruger, L., et al. (2018). Cultural dimensions of nontimber forest products. In J. L. Chamberlain, M. R. Emery, & T. Patel-Weynand (Eds.), Assessment of nontimber forest products in the United States under changing conditions (pp. 83–100). General Technical Report SRS-232. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.Google Scholar
  32. Li, L. Y., & Seeram, N. P. (2011). Further investigation into maple syrup yields 3 new lignans, a new phenylpropanoid, and 26 other phytochemicals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(14), 7708–7716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu, Y. Q., Rose, K. N., DaSilva, N. A., Johnson, S. L., & Seeram, N. P. (2017). Isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of phenolic compounds from a traditional North American confectionery, maple sugar. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65(21), 4289–4295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ludvig, A., Corradini, G., Asamer-Handler, M., Pettenella, D., Verdejo, V., Martínez, S., et al. (2016a). The practice of innovation: The role of institutions in support of non-wood forest products. BioProducts Business, 1(6), 73–84.Google Scholar
  35. Ludvig, A., Tahvanainen, V., Dickson, A., Chapman, E., Evard, C., Kurttila, M., et al. (2016b). The practice of entrepreneurship in the non-wood forest products sector: Support for innovation on private forest land. Forest Policy and Economics, 66, 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miina, J., Pukkala, T., & Kurttila, M. (2016). Optimal multi-product management of stands producing timber and wild berries. European Journal of Forest Research, 135, 781–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ministero delle Politiche agricole, alimentari e forestali. (2010). Piano del settore castanicolo 2010/2013. Rome.Google Scholar
  38. O’Brien, L., & Morris, J. (2014). Well-being for all? The social distribution of benefits gained from woodlands and forests in Britain. Local Environment, 19(4), 356–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peacock, S. L., & Turner, N. J. (2000). “Just like a garden:” Traditional resource management and biodiversity conservation on the interior plateau of British Columbia. In P. E. Minnis & W. J. Elisens (Eds.), Biodiversity and native America (pp. 133–179). Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  40. Pettenella, D., et al. (2019a). NWFPs in Europe—Consumption, markets and marketing tools. In B. Wolfslehner, I. Prokofieva, & R. Mavsar (Eds.), Non-wood forest products in Europe—Seeing the forest around the trees. What Science Can Tell Us 10, European Forest Institute (Forthcoming).Google Scholar
  41. Pettenella, D., et al. (2019b). Economics, marketing and policies of NWFP. In H. Vacik, et al. (Eds.), Production and management of European non-wood forest products. Outcomes of the COST Action FP1203: European non-wood forest products (NWFPs) network. BoD (Forthcoming).Google Scholar
  42. Pine, J. B., & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy. Boston: Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
  43. Pukkala, T. (2004). Dealing with ecological objectives in the Monsu planning system. Silva Lusitana XII, 2004(Special issue), 1–15.Google Scholar
  44. Pukkala, T. (2016). Which type of forest management provides most ecosystem services? Forest Ecosystems, 3(1), 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Prasad, A. M., Iverson, L. R., Matthews, S., & Peters, M. (2007). A climate change atlas for 134 forest tree species of the eastern United States. Delaware, OH: Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service.Google Scholar
  46. Prokofieva, I., Lovric, M., Pettenella, D., Weiss, G., Wolfslehner, B., & Wong, J. (2017). What is the potential contribution of non-wood forest products to the European forest-based bioeconomy? In G. Winkel (Ed.), Towards a sustainable European forest-based bioeconomy—Assessment and the way forward (pp 132–140). What Science Can Tell Us 8. EFI, Joensuu, FI. ISBN 978-952-5980-41-7 (printed) ISBN 978-952-5980-42-4 (pdf).Google Scholar
  47. Radkau, J. (2012). Wood: A history (P. Camiller, Trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  48. Rametsteiner, E., & Weiss, G. (2006). Innovation and innovation policy in forestry: Linking innovation process with systems models. Forest Policy and Economics, 8(7), 691–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ramirez, R. (1999). Value co-production: intellectual origins and implications for practice and research. Strategic Management Journal, 20(1), 49–65.Google Scholar
  50. Robbins, P., Emery, M. R., & Rice, J. L. (2008). Gathering in Thoreau’s backyard: Nontimber forest product harvesting as practice. Area, 40(2), 265–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rosmiza, M. Z., Davies, W. P., Rosniza Aznie C. R., Jabil, M. J., Mazdi, M. (2016). Prospects for increasing commercial mushroom production in Malaysia: Challenges and opportunities. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, [S.l.], 7(1 S1), 406. ISSN 2039-2117.Google Scholar
  52. Schlaepfer, R., Iorgulescu, I., & Glenz, C. (2002). Management of forested landscapes in mountain areas: An ecosystem-based approach. Forest Policy and Economics, 4(2), 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shackleton, S., Shackleton, C., & Shanley, P. (2011). Non-timber forest products in the global context. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sieferle, R. P. (2001). The subterranean forest: Energy systems and the industrial revolution (Translated from the German original by M. P. Osman). Cambridge: The White Horse Press.Google Scholar
  55. Snyder, S., Kilgore, M. A., Emery, M. R., Schmitz, M. (2018). A profile of lake states Maple Syrup producers and their attitudes and responses to economic, social, ecological, and climate challenges (64 pp.). Staff Paper Series No. 248, Department of Forest Resources. St. Paul: University of Minnesota. Retrieved July 6, 2019, from https://www.forestry.umn.edu/sites/forestry.umn.edu/files/staff_paper_248.pdf.
  56. Stryamets, N., Elbakidze, M., & Angelstam, P. (2011). Role of non-wood forest products for local livelihoods in countries with transition and market economies: case studies in Ukraine and Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2011.629622.
  57. Sundbo, J., Sørensen, F., & Fuglsang, L. (2013). Innovation in the experience sector. In J. Sundbo & F. Sørensen (Eds.), Handbook on the experience economy (pp. 228–247). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  58. Tedersoo, L. (2014). Global diversity and geography of soil fungi. Science, 346(6213), 1052–1053. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa1185.
  59. Turner, N. J., & von Aderkas, P. (2012). Sustained by first nations: European newcomers’ use of indigenous plant foods in temperate North America. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 81(4), 295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vacik, H., Wolfslehner, B., Huber, P., & Ruprecht, H. (2014). Estimation of the value of non-timber forest products and services in Austria. In J. A. Parrotta, C. F. Moser, A. J. Scherzer, N. E. Koerth, D. R. Lederle (Eds.), Sustaining forests, sustaining people: The role of research. [XXIV IUFRO World Congress, 5–11 October 2014, Salt Lake City, USA—Abstracts]. International Forestry Review, 16(5), 292.Google Scholar
  61. Vacik, H., Hale, M., Spiecker, H., Pettenella, D., & Tome, M. (Eds.) (2019). Production and management of European non-wood forest products. Outcomes of the COST Action FP1203: European non-wood forest products (NWFPs) network. BoD. (Forthcoming).Google Scholar
  62. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  63. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2011). It’s all B2B…and beyond: Toward a system perspective of the market. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(2), 181–187.Google Scholar
  64. Vargo, S. L., Wieland, H., & Akaka, M. A. (2015). Innovation through institutionalization: A service ecosystems perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 44(1), 63–72.Google Scholar
  65. Weiss, G. (2013). Innovation in forestry: New values and challenges for traditional sector. In: E. G. Carayannis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of creativity, invention, innovation and entrepreneurship (pp. 964–971). ISBN: 978-1-4614-3857-1 (Print); 978-1-4614-3858-8 (Online).Google Scholar
  66. Weiss, G., Ludvig, A., Živojinović, I., Asamer-Handler, M., & Huber, P. (2017a). Non-timber innovations: How to innovate in side-activities of forestry—Case study Styria, Austria. Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 2017(1a), 231–250.Google Scholar
  67. Weiss, G., Pelli, P., Orazio, C., Tykkä, S., Živojinović, I., & Ludvig, A. (2017b). Forest industry clusters as innovation systems: Analysing innovation support frameworks in five European regions. Austrian Journal of Forest Science, 2017(2), 119–148.Google Scholar
  68. Weiss, G., Ludvig, A., Asamer-Handler, M., Fischer, C., Vacik, H., & Živojinović, I. (2019). Rendering NWFPs innovative. In B. Wolfslehner, I. Prokofieva, R. Mavsar (Eds.), Non-wood forest products in Europe: Seeing the forest around the trees. What Science Can Tell Us 10, European Forest Institute. ISBN: 978-952-5980-77-6 (printed), ISBN: 978-952-5980-78-3 (pdf).Google Scholar
  69. Whitney, G. G., & Upmeyer, M. M. (2004). Sweet trees, sour circumstances: The long search for sustainability in the North American maple products industry. Forest Ecology and Management, 200(1–3), 313–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wieland, H., Vargo, S., & Akaka, M. A. (2016). Zooming out and zooming in: Service ecosystems as venues for collaborative innovation. In M. Toivonen (Ed.), Service innovation—Novel ways of creating value in actor systems (pp. 35–50). Springer.Google Scholar
  71. Wiersum, K. F., Wong, J. L. G., & Vacik, H. (2018). Perspectives on non-wood forest product development in Europe. International Forestry Review, 20(2), 250–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wong, J., Argerich, R. M., Asamer-Handler, M., Chapman, E., Dickson, A., Doringer, E., et al. (2016). Action research reports (67 pp.). StarTree project Deliverable 1.5.Google Scholar
  73. Wong, J., & Wiersum, F. (2019). A spotlight on NWFP in Europe. In B. Wolfslehner, I. Prokofieva, R. Mavsar (Eds.), Non-wood forest products in Europe—Seeing the forest around the trees. What Science Can Tell Us 10, European Forest Institute (Forthcoming).Google Scholar
  74. Wong, J., et al. (2019). Animal products. In H. Vacik, et al. (Eds.), Production and management of European non-wood forest products. Outcomes of the COST Action FP1203: European non-wood forest products (NWFPs) network. BoD.Google Scholar
  75. Živojinović, I., Weiss, G., Wilding, M., Wong, J., & Ludvig, A. (forthcoming). Experiencing forest products - an innovative niche for rural entrepreneurs. (Land Use Policy, under review).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Weiss
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marla R. Emery
    • 2
  • Jari Miina
    • 3
  • Mikko Kurttila
    • 3
  • Giulia Corradini
    • 4
  • Patrick Huber
    • 5
  • Harald Vacik
    • 5
  1. 1.University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences & European Forest InstituteViennaAustria
  2. 2.USDA, Forest ServiceBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Natural Resources Institute FinlandJoensuuFinland
  4. 4.University of PadovaLegnaroItaly
  5. 5.University of Natural Resources and Life SciencesViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations