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Etiology and Clinical Presentation of Gastroparesis

  • Laura A. PaceEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Gastroparesis is a clinical syndrome characterized by delayed emptying of solid food from the stomach in the absence of a mechanical obstruction, which results in symptoms of nausea, early satiety, postprandial fullness, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and often vomiting. Gastroparesis represents a disorder of neuromuscular dysfunction and is typically described to encompass three broad categories: diabetic, postsurgical, and idiopathic. The neuromuscular dysfunction of gastroparesis arises from derangements in extrinsic neuronal control, dysfunction of the elaborate interconnections of intrinsic nerves and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), dysfunction of smooth muscle, or some combination thereof. While gastroparesis is most commonly thought to be secondary to diabetes, idiopathic gastroparesis is in fact the most common etiology of gastroparesis and includes individuals with underlying immune, neurologic, or metabolic disorders. Furthermore, gastroparesis disproportionality affects females 4:1 and, based on a recent study, may be dramatically underrecognized in clinical practice (Jung et al., Gastroenterology 136:1225–1233, 2009).

Keywords

Gastroparesis Gastrointestinal dysmotility Neuromuscular dysfunction Neuroimmune Autoimmune gastrointestinal dysmotility Dysautonomia Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, & NutritionUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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