Evaluation of the Pulmonary System

  • Jeremy E. OrrEmail author
  • Lisa F. Wolfe


Neurological conditions affecting the larynx often coincide with respiratory issues, highlighting the importance of multispecialty care of these patients that includes pulmonologists. In this chapter, we provide a background on pulmonary evaluation and discuss several potential issues: Laryngeal dysfunction may mimic respiratory disease, with symptoms such as shortness of breath and abnormal airway sounds. In many diseases of the larynx, laryngeal dysfunction leads to a risk of pulmonary aspiration and pneumonia. In neuromuscular conditions, concurrent respiratory muscle weakness must be recognized for proper comprehensive care and perioperative evaluation. Increasingly, patients with respiratory muscle weakness are managed with noninvasive respiratory support including noninvasive ventilation and airway clearance modalities. In patients with severe laryngeal dysfunction, treatment including tracheostomy and possible mechanical ventilation (e.g., invasive approach) may still be warranted but should be evaluated with consideration of the patient’s values and preferences.


Lung Pulmonary function testing Restrictive lung disease Respiratory muscle weakness Respiratory failure 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of California–San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Ken and Ruth Davee Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurological SciencesNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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