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Laryngeal Reinnervation

  • Kenneth R. Feehs
  • Richard W. Thomas
  • Michael I. OrestesEmail author
Chapter
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Abstract

Laryngeal denervation from recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a known complication of anterior neck and thyroid surgery resulting in unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal reinnervation refers to various surgical techniques that restore neural connection to denervated portions of the larynx. These techniques include direct anastomosis or neurorrhaphy, nerve-muscle pedicle transfer, direct implantation of a nerve into muscle, and muscle-nerve-muscle transfer. Laryngeal reinnervation presents multiple advantages over traditional static techniques and has been shown to achieve normal vocalization in unilateral vocal fold paralysis and phasic glottic opening in bilateral vocal fold paralysis. The principal disadvantage of laryngeal reinnervation compared to static techniques is time duration to clinical effect and perceived complexity of the surgery. Reinnervation of the larynx continues to be an active, propitious area of investigation holding significant promise for both current and future patients with vocal fold paralysis.

Keywords

Recurrent laryngeal nerve Laryngeal reinnervation Vocal fold paralysis Direct neurorrhaphy Nerve-muscle pedicle Direct nerve implantation Ansa cervicalis nerve Hypoglossal nerve Superior laryngeal nerve External branch 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US Department of the Navy, Department of the Army, Department of Defense, Uniformed Service University, or the US Federal Government.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth R. Feehs
    • 1
  • Richard W. Thomas
    • 2
  • Michael I. Orestes
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryWalter Reed National Military Medical CenterBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Office of the President, Uniformed Services UniversityBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck SurgeryWalter Reed National Military Medical CenterBethesdaUSA

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