Parkinson Disease

  • Jacqui E. AllenEmail author
  • Anna Miles


Parkinson disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease reported worldwide and presents multiple diverse and disparate manifestations over a prolonged disease course. At any point, speech and swallowing functions may be disturbed, and dysfunctional swallowing, leading to aspiration pneumonia, is the most common cause of death. Current treatments demonstrate limited benefit for speech and swallowing impairments, but novel approaches and greater insight into disease pathogenesis offer hope of improved management of Parkinson disease and its sequelae.


Parkinson disease Dysphagia Aspiration pneumonia α-Synucleinopathy Hypophonia Lee Silverman Voice Technique Choir therapy 



Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase


Autosomal dominant


Autosomal recessive


Blood-brain barrier






DJ-1 parkinsonism associated deglycase∗


Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2∗


Parkin (PARK2)∗


Parkinson disease


PTEN-induced putative kinase 1∗


Recurrent laryngeal nerve


α-Synuclein gene (also called PARK1/4)∗


Upper esophageal sphincter


Vocal folds


Video-fluoroscopic swallowing study

Gene names for genes associated with familial Parkinson disease


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyNorth Shore Hospital AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.The University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Speech ScienceThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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