Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota After Gastric Bypass
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Gastric bypass surgery is the most efficacious intervention for the treatment of morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes. Multiple and multilayered mechanisms have been proposed for the therapeutic effects of the procedure. Given that the microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes, an emphasis has been placed on addressing whether alterations to the gut microbiota may contribute to the effector functions of gastric bypass.
A number of studies have characterised unique phylogenetic changes in the structure of the gut microbiota after gastric bypass highlighting phylum-level differences. These appear more likely to depend upon gastrointestinal reconfiguration rather than changes in diet and body weight. Functional annotation of metagenomic changes indicates that the reformulated microbiota may significantly alter host metabolism and result in reduced energy harvest from the diet.
Future efforts to define the core alterations in the microbiome that confer metabolic benefit may be of value in efforts to develop non-surgical bariatric mimetic approaches to the treatment of obesity and diabetes.
KeywordsDiabetes Obesity Gastric bypass Microbiota Pyrosequencing Metagenomics
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