Morbid Obesity

  • Minna Ferrari Schleu
  • Karyne Freitas Barbosa


Obesity is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. Morbid obesity is defined when BMI is ≥40 kg/m2. Etiology of obesity in this subgroup is more frequently associated with secondary causes and genetic syndromes. There is a positive correlation between BMI and complications. As BMI increases, comorbidities are more prevalent and mortality rises. Weight loss is related to improvement of diabetes, hypertension, lipid levels, and other complications. Lifestyle intervention with a healthy diet, physical activity, and behavioral changes must be encouraged. These interventions have not been associated with good and sustained results in morbidly obese individuals. Pharmacological treatment is usually necessary to reach at least 5% reduction of initial body weight, which is suggested to be related to a reduction of mortality and improvement of quality of life. New drugs have recently been developed, and treatment must be individualized, based on dietary patterns and lifestyle. Some drugs are more effective for this subgroup of patients. Bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention as it provides a greater and sustained weight loss and is reserved for those patients who fail to these clinical strategies.


Obesity Morbid obesity Complications Comorbidities Lifestyle intervention Treatment Drugs Bariatric surgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minna Ferrari Schleu
    • 1
  • Karyne Freitas Barbosa
    • 2
  1. 1.EndocrinologyClínica MettaSalvadorBrazil
  2. 2.Endocrinology DivisionSão RafaelSalvadorBrazil

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