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Ultrasound for Shock Evaluation, Resuscitation, and Critical Care Procedures

  • Daniel Haase
  • Rohit PatelEmail author
Chapter
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

Ultrasound research and description of use in the shock patient for resuscitation, hemodynamic evaluation, and procedural skills has grown exponentially in recent years. Many algorithms have been developed for use in specific situations, such as the trauma patient with the well-known FAST (focused assessment with sonography in trauma) exam, as well as management of hypoxia, respiratory failure, and hypotension. In the future we may have developed algorithms for other common critical care conditions such as fever of unknown origin, oligoanuria, and nutritional status. In a recent paper the “ICU-sound” protocol found transthoracic ultrasound examination can be used to diagnose abnormalities and modify admitting diagnoses in 26% of patients, led to changes in medical therapy in 18% of patients, and initiated invasive procedures in 22% of patients (Manno et al, Anesthesiology 117(4):801–9, 2012). Point of care or “bedside” ultrasound involves the use of ultrasound at the patient’s bedside to answer very specific clinical questions that can be used immediately to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions by the patient’s healthcare provider. This reduces the time to lifesaving interventions which has been shown in previous studies to decrease morbidity and mortality (Manasia et al, J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 19:155–9, 2005). First we will discuss individual applications used in the critically ill patient, and then we will discuss algorithms one can use by combining these individual applications in order to best assess a patient in shock, respiratory failure, and procedural ultrasound use.

Keywords

Lung ultrasound Ultrasound Pneumothorax Pneumonia Pleural effusion Pulmonary edema Vascular access Pericardiocentesis Hypotension Hypoxia Volume status Inferior vena cava Internal jugular vein Femoral vein Subclavian vein Radial artery Thoracentesis Paracentesis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.University of Florida HealthGainesvilleUSA

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