Fluids and Vasoactive Agents

  • James DarginEmail author


Fluid resuscitation and the use of vasoactive agents are the primary means of improving tissue perfusion in patients with circulatory shock. Intravenous fluid boluses not only help to restore hemodynamic stability in hypovolemic shock, but in many other shock states as well. Vasoactive agents are often necessary to help improve blood flow to vital organs, particularly in patients with shock refractory to fluid resuscitation. The type and quantity of fluid administered and the appropriate selection of vasoactive agents can affect patient outcomes. A clear understanding of the pharmacologic principles, the indications and contraindications, and the toxicities of fluids and vasoactives will help guide effective resuscitation of the patient with shock.


Shock Fluid Crystalloid Colloid Vasopressor Epinephrine Norepinephrine Phenylephrine Vasopressin Dopamine Dobutamine Milrinone 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tufts University School of MedicineMedical Intensive Care UnitBostonUSA
  2. 2.Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineLahey Hospital & Medical CenterBurlingtonUSA

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