Toxicology and OD

  • Mark Hincapie
  • Emily Fontane
  • Joseph R. ShiberEmail author


After an exposure to any potential poison, the basic principles of assessment and stabilization of ABCD (Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability) still apply with the addition of an extra D for Decontamination. This includes removing any ongoing exposure or absorption by removing clothes that may be saturated with a toxin, irrigating the skin or manually brushing off cutaneous substances, and preventing further enteral absorption by using activated charcoal to bind the substance or to flush it out of the body using whole bowel irrigation. For some substances, certain patterns of toxicity known as toxidromes exist (See Fig. 28.1), and for some toxins, specific antidotes may be indicated in addition to supportive care (see Box 28.1) [1, 2].


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Hincapie
    • 1
  • Emily Fontane
    • 2
  • Joseph R. Shiber
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Critical Care to Paediatric Emergency medicineJacksonvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Pediatric Emergency MedicineUniversity of Florida, College of MedicineJacksonvilleUSA
  3. 3.College of MedicineUniversity of Florida Health Science CenterJacksonvilleUSA

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