• Stéphane PaquinEmail author
Part of the The Sciences Po Series in International Relations and Political Economy book series (SPIRP)


Paradiplomacy remains largely unknown but the phenomenon it represents has almost become commonplace. Even if the phenomenon is very widespread and although paradiplomacy has really become a global phenomenon, the disparate and still embryonic nature of the majority of paradiplomatic activities contributes to keep this phenomenon in the background in the media, but also in the academic literature. In international law as in international relations, because of the stato-centric bias of these disciplines, the importance of the activities of sub-state entities is often downplayed, as they would not have the qualities required to be considered as “true international actors.” The paradiplomatic phenomenon is important; it is intensive, extensive, and permanent. The actors of paradiplomacy and identity paradiplomacy have a good margin of autonomy, many resources, often more than the vast majority of sovereign states, and they have more and more influence on international politics.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.École nationale d’administration publique (ENAP)MontréalCanada

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