Conclusions: What Is Next for the Healthy Human-Microbe “Holobiome”?

  • M. Andrea Azcarate-PerilEmail author


Our gut microbiota is composed of an assortment of (semi)permanent intestinal inhabitants that co-exist with temporary microbes. Although it is hard to keep up with the fast advancing field of microbiome research, this book bid to provide, first, a look into key players of the gut microbiota found in food from breast milk to dairy, meats and vegetables, to a revision of methods to generate efficacious probiotics. Then, we approached the oral microbiota as the host-microbe ecosystem that selects which bacteria will progress into the gastrointestinal tract, highlighting the importance of oral health for the overall health of the host. Finally, the third part of the book focused on age and the gut microbiome, how the consumption of foods with high microbial loads may lead to temporary changes in microbial diversity, to end on what is commonly known now as “the diseases of the Western civilization” and the potential to modulate the gut microbiota for a more resilient microbial population. Hence, what do we know now that we did not know 10 years ago?


Holobiome Responders and non-responders Healthy gut microbiota Microbiome diversity 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of MedicineUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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