Advertisement

Disability Hate Crime on Public Transport: Conclusion and New Directions

  • David Wilkin
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Hate Studies book series (PAHS)

Abstract

This concluding chapter reflects on the personal research journey taken to reveal the experiences of disability hate crime victims on public transport by the author. The chapter substantiates the methodology used, its original contribution to knowledge and its findings. The chapter then turns towards the future. It discusses the implications for theory and knowledge and what changes have been made because of the author’s research. It then asks questions of future research and methodology before citing implications for policy and practice in the UK.

Keywords

Reflection Future directions and policy Questions for future research 

Bibliography

  1. Beadle-Brown, J., Richardson, L., Guest, C., Malovic, A., Bradshaw, J., & Himmerich, J. (2014). Living in Fear: Better Outcomes for People with Learning Disabilities and Autism, Main Research Report. Canterbury: Tizard Centre, University of Kent.Google Scholar
  2. British Transport Police (BTP). (2017, August 3). Interview Between the Author and Inspector Granville Sellers, Deputy Lead for Hate Crimes, of the BTP Safeguarding Hub. Leeds: British Transport Police.Google Scholar
  3. Chakraborti, N., Garland, J., & Hardy, S.-J. (2014). The Leicester Hate Crime Project: Findings and Conclusions. Leicester: University of Leicester.Google Scholar
  4. Clement, S., Brohan, E., Sayce, L., Pool, J., & Thornicroft, G. (2011). Disability Hate Crime, Targeted Violence and Hostility: A Mental Health and Discrimination Perspective. Journal of Mental Health, 20(3), 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. College of Policing (CoP). (2014). Hate Crime Operational Guidance. Coventry: College of Policing.Google Scholar
  6. Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). (2018). Hate Crime Annual Report 2017–18. London: The Crown Prosecution Service.Google Scholar
  7. Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). (2019, February 14). Interview Between the Researcher and Mick Conboy, Hate Crime Stakeholder Manager: Operations Directorate, Crown Prosecution Service. London: The Crown Prosecution Service.Google Scholar
  8. Department for Transport. (2018a). Next Steps Towards a Fully Inclusive Transport Network. Online at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/next-steps-towards-a-fully-inclusive-transport-network. Accessed 3 Jan 2019.
  9. Department for Transport. (2018b). The Inclusive Transport Strategy: Achieving Equal Access for Disabled People. London: Department for Transport.Google Scholar
  10. Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). (2011). Hidden in Plain Sight: Inquiry into Disability-Related Harassment. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  11. Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). (2018). Is Britain Fairer? The State of Equality and Human Rights 2018. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  12. Garcia, V. (2018, March 9). An Interview Between the Author and Victoria Garcia, Accessibility and Communities Manager for Brighton and Hove Buses and Metrobus.Google Scholar
  13. Garland, J., Spalek, B., & Chakraborti, N. (2005). Hearing Lost Voices: Issues in Researching ‘Hidden’ Minority Ethnic Communities. British Journal of Criminology, 46, 423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giannasi, P. (2017, September 20). Interview at the Home Office Between the Author and Paul Giannasi Head of the Cross-Government Hate Crime Programme.Google Scholar
  15. Guardian (The). (2018, January 25). Less Than 25% of Hate Crime Reports on UK Railways Lead to Charges. The Guardian (online). London: The Guardian. Online at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/dec/25/hate-crime-reports-uk-railways-charges-british-transport-police-figures. Accessed 10 Jan 2019.
  16. Hamilton, P., & Trickett, L. (2014). Disability Hostility, Harassment and Violence in the UK: A ‘Motiveless’ and ‘Senseless’ Crime? In N. Hall, A. Corb, & P. Giannasi (Eds.), Routledge International Handbooks: Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime (pp. 207–225). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Her Majesties Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services (HMICFRS). (2018). Understanding the Difference: The Initial Police Response to Hate Crime. London: Her Majesties Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services.Google Scholar
  18. HM Government Equalities Office. (2013). The Independent Steering Group’s Report of the Public Sector Equality Duty (PSED): Review and Government Response. Online at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-independent-steering-groups-report-of-the-public-sector-equality-duty-psed-review-and-government-response. Accessed 14 July 2017.
  19. Home Office. (2016). Action Against Hate: The UK Government’s Plan for Tackling Hate Crime. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  20. Iganski, P. (2008a). Hate Crime and the City. Bristol: The Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Iganski, P. (2008b). Criminal Law and the Routine Activity of ‘Hate Crime’. Liverpool Law Review, 29(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Iganski, P., & Lagou, S. (2015). The Personal Injuries of ‘Hate Crime’. In N. Hall, A. Corb, & P. Giannasi (Eds.), Routledge International Handbooks: Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime (pp. 34–46). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Law Commission (The). (2018). Law Commission Review into Hate Crime Announced. London: The Law Commission. Online at: https://www.lawcom.gov.uk/law-commission-review-into-hate-crime-announced/. Accessed 28 Oct 2018.
  24. Leicester Hate Crime Project’s Victim’s Manifesto. (2014). Leicester: University of Leicester.Google Scholar
  25. Lewis, H. (2019, March 15). Interview Between the Author and Huw Lewis, Customer Services Director of NEXUS.Google Scholar
  26. Mason-Bish, H. (2015). Beyond the Silo: Rethinking Hate Crime and Intersectionality. In N. Hall, A. Corb, & P. Giannasi (Eds.), Routledge International Handbooks: Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime (pp. 24–33). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. NEXUS. (2018). Hate Crime Charter for Public Transport, Tyne and Wear: NEXUS. Online at: https://www.nexus.org.uk/sites/default/files/hate_crime_charter_for_public_transport.pdf. Accessed 17 Dec 2018.
  28. Paterson, J., Brown, R., & Walters, M. (2018). The Short and Longer Term Impacts of Hate Crimes Experienced Directly, Indirectly, and Through the Media. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1–17.Google Scholar
  29. World Health Organisation (WHO). (2017). 10 Facts on Disability, Updated November 2017. Online at: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/disability/en/. Accessed 10 Mar 2018.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CriminologyUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK

Personalised recommendations